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research-article  
Jian-Guang Wei, Xue-song Lin, Xue-Mei Liu and Yuan-Yuan Ma
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4037026
The variable mass flow in perforated horizontal wells is very complex. One reason is that the perforation can increase the roughness of the pipe wall which will increase the frictional pressure drop. The other is the fluid boundary layer and velocity profile of axial flow will be changed due to the “mixing” of the inflow with the axial flow. The influences of the perforation parameters and flux rate on the pressure drawdown in horizontal wellbore are investigated. The perforation parameters include perforation phasing, perforation diameter, perforation density. According to the experiment results, some modes such as friction factor calculation model (the accuracy of the model is 4%), “mixing” pressure drop calculation model (the accuracy of the model is 3%) and total pressure drop calculation model (the accuracy of the model is 2%) are developed.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Wells, Pressure drop, Axial flow, Inflow, Surface roughness, Boundary layers, Pipes, Friction, Fluids, Density, Pressure
research-article  
Martino Marini, Roberto Baccoli, Costantino Carlo Mastino, Antonino Di Bella, Carlo Bernardini and Massimiliano Masullo
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4037088
The present energy scenario has led to an acceleration in the development of renewable energy sources. Recent European standards, have raised the concern of defining a path to reach in 2050 a level of decarburization that is lower than 80% when compared to 1990. The current technological progress emphasizes wind power as an energy source which shows a special reliability. The technology to make full use of this source is based on large wind turbines, with a rated capacity of approximately 3 MW . Among the main environmental problems that need to be addressed in the planning of a new wind farm there is the noise. The noise generated by wind turbines has a broad spectrum character, a special interest in recent years has been directed to the low frequency noise. In several European countries special laws have been adopted to impose noise limits and evaluation methods for the assessment of environmental noise due to this type of sound sources. Other countries are now lacking specific rules about this problem but in the authorization procedure for wind farm planning such analysis is required by environmental control agencies. The purpose of this study consists of comparing the assessment procedures used in different European countries for the prediction of low frequency noise from wind turbines. After evaluating the results of the calculations, obtained by available computational tools and with the help of presented predictive models, the impact of low frequencies noise generated by wind turbines in the vicinity of sensitive receptors, is negligible.
TOPICS: Noise (Sound), Wind turbines, Wind farms, Reliability, Decarburization, Energy resources, Evaluation methods, Renewable energy sources, Wind power
research-article  
Handong Wu, Sheng Li and Lin Gao
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036957
Gasification is the core unit of coal-based production systems and is also the site where one of the largest exergy destruction occurs. This paper reveals the exergy destruction mechanism of carbon gasification through a combined analysis of the kinetic method and the Energy Utilization Diagram (EUD). Instead of a lumped exergy destruction using the traditional "Black-Box" and other models, the role of each reaction in carbon gasification is revealed. The results show that the exergy destruction caused by chemical reactions accounts for 86.3% of the entire carbon gasification process. Furthermore, approximately 90.3% of exergy destruction of chemical reactions is caused by the exothermal carbon partial oxidation reaction (Reaction 1), 6.0% is caused by the carbon dioxide gasification reaction (Reaction 2), 2.4% is caused by the steam gasification reaction (Reaction 3) and 1.3% is caused by other reactions under the base condition. With increasing O2 content a and decreasing steam content ß, the proportion of exergy destruction from Reaction 1 decreases due to the higher gasification temperature (a higher energy level of energy acceptor in EUD), while the proportions of other reactions increase. This shows that the chemical efficiency is optimal when the extent of Reaction 1 and Reaction 3 are equal and the shift reaction extent approaches zero at the same time.
TOPICS: Exergy, Coal, Fuel gasification, Carbon, Steam, Chemical reactions, Temperature, Energy levels (Quantum mechanics), Manufacturing systems, oxidation, Carbon dioxide
research-article  
Wladyslaw Mitianiec
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036958
Combustion processes of two fuels: pulverized coal and biomass in furnaces takes place at steady state. Combustion of condensed fuels involves one-way interfacial flux due to phenomena in the condensed phase (evaporation or pyrolysis) and reciprocal ones (heterogeneous combustion and gasification). Many of the species injected in the gas phase are afterwards involved in gas phase combustion. The paper presents results of combustion process of two-phase charge contained coal and wetted biomass, where the carrier was the air with given flow rate. The furnace represents three inlets with assumed inlet flow rate of coal, biomass and air and combustion process takes place in the furnace fluidized space. The simulation of such combustion process was carried out by numerical code of open source CFD program Code_Saturne. For both fuels the moist biomass with following mass contents: C=53%, H=5.8% and O=37.62%, ash=3.6 and mean diameter of molecules equal 0.0008 m and pulverized coal with following mass contents: C=76.65%, H=5.16%, O=9.9%, ash=6.21% and mean molecule diameter 0.000025 m. Devolatilisation process with kinetic reactions was taken into account. Distribution of the main combustion product in furnace space is presented with disappearance of the molecules of fuels. The paper presents theoretical description of the two-phase charge, specification of the thermodynamic state of the charge in inlet boundaries and furnace space and thermal parameters solid fuel molecules obtained from the open source postprocessor ParaView.
TOPICS: Biomass, Coal, Fluidized beds, Furnaces, Co-firing, Combustion, Fuels, Flow (Dynamics), Pyrolysis, Steady state, Simulation, Fuel gasification, Computational fluid dynamics, Evaporation
research-article  
Eileen M. Mirynowski, Ajay K. Agrawal and Joshua A. Bittle
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036959
More precise measurements of the fuel injection process can enable better combustion control and more accurate predictions resulting in a reduction of fuel consumption and toxic emissions. Many of the current methods researchers are using to investigate the transient liquid fuel sprays are limited by cross sensitivity when studying regions with both liquid and vapor phases present (i.e. upstream of the liquid length). The quantitative rainbow schlieren technique has been demonstrated in the past for gaseous fuel jets and is being developed here to enable study of the spray near the injector. In this work an optically accessible constant pressure flow rig and a modern common rail diesel injector are used to obtain high speed images of vaporizing fuel sprays at elevated ambient temperatures and pressures. Quantitative results of full-field equivalence ratio measurements are presented as well as more traditional measurements such as vapor penetration and angle for a single condition (13 bar, 180°C normal air) using n-heptane injected through a single hole (0.1mm diameter) common rail fuel injector at 1000 bar fuel injection pressure. This work serves as a proof of concept for the rainbow schlieren technique being applied to vaporizing fuel sprays and full details of the image processing routine are provided. The ability of the imaging technique combined with the constant pressure flow rig make this approach ideal for generating large data sets in short periods of time for a wide range of operating conditions.
TOPICS: Ejectors, Sprays, Diesel, Heptane, Common rail fuel injectors, Fuels, Pressure, Flow (Dynamics), Vapors, Schlieren methods, Transients (Dynamics), Jets, Temperature, Combustion, Fuel consumption, Emissions, Image processing, Imaging
research-article  
Yu Shi and Daoyong Yang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036960
A novel and pragmatic technique has been proposed to quantify non-equilibrium phase behaviour together with physical properties of foamy oil under reservoir conditions. Experimentally, constant-composition expansion (CCE) experiments at various constant pressure decline rates are conducted to examine non-equilibrium phase behaviour of solvent-CO2-heavy oil systems. Theoretically, the amount of evolved gas is firstly formulated as a function of time, and then incorporated into real gas equation to quantify non-equilibrium phase behaviour of the aforementioned systems. Good agreements between the measured and calculated volume-pressure profiles have been achieved, while both amounts of evolved gas and entrained gas as well as compressibility and density of foamy oil were determined. A larger pressure decline rate and a lower temperature are found to result in a lower pseudo-bubblepoint pressure and a higher expansion rate of the evolved gas volume. Physical properties of the oleic phase under non-equilibrium conditions follow the same trends as those of conventionally undersaturated oil under equilibrium conditions when pressure is higher than the pseudo-bubblepoint pressure. However, there is an abrupt increase of compressibility and decrease of density associated with pseudo-bubblepoint pressure instead of bubblepoint pressure. The amount of dispersed gas in the oleic phase is found to impose a dominant impact on physical properties of the foamy oil. Compared with CCE experiment at constant volume expansion rate, a rebound pressure and its corresponding effects on physical properties cannot be observed in the CCE experiments at constant pressure decline rate.
TOPICS: Reservoirs, Equilibrium (Physics), Pressure, Compressibility, Density, Temperature, Carbon dioxide
research-article  
Leigh Nash, Jennifer Klettlinger and Subith Vasu
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036961
Thermal stability is an important characteristic of alternative fuels that must be evaluated before they can be used in aviation engines. Thermal stability refers to the degree to which a fuel breaks down when it is heated prior to combustion. This characteristic is of great importance to the effectiveness of the fuel as a coolant and to the engine’s combustion performance. The thermal stability of Sasol IPK, a synthetic alternative to Jet-A, with varying levels of naphthalene has been studied on aluminum and stainless steel substrates at 300 to 400 °C. This was conducted using a spectroscopic ellipsometer to measure the thickness of deposits left on the heated substrates. Ellipsometry is an optical technique that measures the changes in a light beam’s polarization and intensity after it reflects from a thin film to determine the film’s physical and optical properties. It was observed that, as would be expected, increasing the temperature minimally increased the deposit thickness for a constant concentration of naphthalene on both substrates. The repeatability of these measurements was verified using multiple trials at identical test conditions. Lastly, the effect of increasing the naphthalene concentration at a constant temperature was found to also minimally increase the deposit thickness.
TOPICS: Fuels, Thermal stability, Temperature, Combustion, Aluminum, Polarization (Waves), Engines, Polarization (Electricity), Coolants, Polarization (Light), Stainless steel, Aviation, Thin films
research-article  
Samer F. Ahmed and Mert Atilhan
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036962
In the present study, a new carbon capture device that can be carried on-board vehicles has been developed and tested. The developed device has employed absorption and adsorption methods of post-combustion CO2 capture. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pellets and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 have been used as solvents and sorbents in the device. The CO2 capture efficiency has been evaluated at a wide range of operating conditions. The results showed that the higher the concentration of the solvent, the higher the capture efficiency with 100% capture efficiency has been obtained at full saturation of NaOH. In addition, the increase in the solution temperature increases the capture efficiency up to 50°C. Design of the gas distributor in the device has also a notable effect on CO2 capture. It was found that solvent prepared with seawater can provide high capture efficiency over a wide range of operation, but in general, it has a lower capture efficiency than that prepared by tap water. Moreover, solvents prepared by NaOH has a superior CO2 capture efficiency over those prepared by Ca(OH)2. For the adsorption technique, a 50% NaOH and 50% Ca(OH) mixture by mass has provided the highest capture efficiency compared with each sorbent when used alone.
TOPICS: Carbon capture and storage, Emissions, Sorbents, Calcium hydroxide, Design, Vehicles, Seawater, Sodium, Water, Temperature, Combustion, Absorption
research-article  
Arash Dahi Taleghani, Guoqiang Li and Mehdi Moayedi
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036963
One of the serious challenges in cementing oil and gas wells is the failure of the cement sheaths and its debonding from casing or formation rock. Shrinkage of the cement during setting is identified as one of the driving factors behind these issues. Some expansive cement systems have been developed in the oil and gas industry to compensate for the shrinkage effect. All the expansive additives which have been developed so far have chemical reactions with the cement itself that would significantly impact the mechanical strength of the cement. In this paper, we present a new class of polymer-based expandable cement additive particles which are made of shape memory polymers (SMP). This class of polymers is deigned to expand to the required extent when exposed to temperatures above 50-100°C (122-212°F) which is below the temperature of the cementing zone. It is notable that expansion occurs after placement of the cement but before its setting. The API standards have been followed as standard test methods to evaluate expansion and strength of the cement slurry after utilizing the new additive. The proposed additive does not react with the water or cement content of the slurry. Mechanical evaluation tests confirm the potential benefit of this additive without any deteriorative effect on mechanical properties or setting time of the cement paste and significant impact on its mechanical properties. Hence this additive would provide a reliable way to prevent cement channeling, debonding and fluid migration to upper formations.
TOPICS: Cement additives, Cements (Adhesives), Mechanical properties, Shrinkage (Materials), Temperature, Polymers, Slurries, Failure, Rocks, Water, American Petroleum Institute, Shape memory polymers, Chemical reactions, Fluids, Particulate matter, Natural gas wells, Strength (Materials), Petroleum industry
research-article  
Michele Mari, Mauro Venturini and Asfaw Beyene
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036964
In this study, we present the results of a two-dimensional fluid-dynamic simulation of novel rotor geometry with spline function which is derivative of the traditional S-shape Savonius blade. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis is conducted using the Spalart-Allmaras turbulent model, validated using experimental data released by Sandia National Laboratory. Results are presented in terms of dimensionless torque and power coefficients, assuming a wind speed of 7 m/s and height and rotor diameter of 1 m. Furthermore, analysis of the forces acting on the rotor is conducted by evaluating frontal and side forces on each blade, and the resultant force acting on the central shaft. A qualitative representation of the vorticity around the traditional and spline rotor is shown to prove that the novel blade allows less turbulent flow through the rotor.
TOPICS: Geometry, Vertical axis wind turbines, Savonius wind turbines, Rotors, Blades, Splines, Turbulence, Computational fluid dynamics, Shapes, Wind velocity, Simulation, Torque, Fluids, Vorticity
research-article  
Jonas Adler and Todd Bandhauer
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036771
The current state of the art in waste heat recovery (WHR) from internal combustion engines (ICEs) is limited in part by the low temperature of the engine coolant. In the present study, the effects of operating a diesel engine at elevated coolant temperatures to improve utilization of engine coolant waste heat are investigated. An energy balance was performed on a modified 3-cylinder diesel engine at six different coolant temperatures (90°C, 100°C, 125°C, 150°C, 175°C, and 200°C) and fifteen different engine loads to determine the impact on waste heat as the coolant temperature increased. The relative brake efficiency of the engine alone decreased between 4.5% and 7.3% as the coolant temperature was increased from 90°C to 150°C. However, the engine coolant exergy increased between 20% and 40% over the same interval. The exhaust exergy also increased between 14% and 28% for a total waste heat exergy increase between 19% and 25%. The engine condition was evaluated after testing and problem areas were identified such as overexpansion of pistons, oil breakdown at the piston rings, and head gasket seal failure.
TOPICS: Temperature, Diesel engines, Coolants, Engines, Exergy, Waste heat, Internal combustion engines, Low temperature, Testing, Cylinders, Energy budget (Physics), Heat recovery, Stress, Brakes, Gaskets, Piston rings, Exhaust systems, Failure, Pistons
research-article  
Aldo Márquez-Nolasco, Roberto Conde-Gutiérrez, J. Alfredo Hernandez, Armando Huicochea, Javier Siqueiros and Ociel Rodriguez
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4036544
The most critical component of an absorption heat transformer is the absorber, by the exothermic reaction which is carried out, resulting a useful thermal energy. This article proposed a model based on improving the performance of energy for an absorber with disks of graphite during the exothermic reaction, through of an optimal strategy. Two models of artificial neural networks (ANN) were developed to predict the thermal energy, through two important factors: internal heat in the absorber (QAB) and the temperature of the working solution of the absorber outlet (TAB). Confronting the simulated and real data, a satisfactory agreement was appreciated, obtaining a mean absolute percentage error value of 0.24 % to calculate QAB and of 0.17 % to calculate TAB. Furthermore, from these ANN models, the inverse neural network (ANNi) allowed improves the thermal efficiency of the absorber (QAB and TAB). To achieve find the optimal values was necessary to propose an objective function, where the genetic algorithms were indicated. Finally, by applying the ANNi-GAs model, the optimized network configuration was to find an optimal value of concentrated solution of LiBr-H2O and the vapor inlet temperature to the absorber. The results obtained from the optimization allowed to reach a value of QAB from 1.72 kW to 2.44 kW, when a concentrated solution of LiBr-H2O at 59 % was used and increased the value of TAB from 104.73ºC to 109.2°C, when was used a vapor inlet temperature of 73ºC.
TOPICS: Thermal energy, Optimization, Disks, Artificial neural networks, Graphite, Temperature, Vapors, Water, Heat, Thermal efficiency, Absorption, Gases, Errors, Genetic algorithms
research-article  
Arild Saasen, Songxiong Ding, Per Amund Amundsen and Kristoffer Tellefsen
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4033304
Materials such as added clays, weight materials, drill solids and metalic wear products in the drilling fluid are known to distort the geomagnetic field at the location of the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool magnetometers that are used to measure the direction of well path. This distortion contributes to substantial errors in determination of azimuth while drilling deviated wells. These errors may result in missing the target of a long deviated 12 ¼” section in the range of 1-200m; representing a significant cost to be mitigated. The error becomes even more pronounced if drilling occurs in arctic regions close to the magnetic North Pole ( or South Pole). The effect on the magnetometer readings is obviously linked to the kinds and amounts of magnetic materials in the drilling fluid. The problem has recently been studied by laboratory experiments and analyses of downhole survey data. A series of experiments has been carried out to understand how some drilling fluid additives relate to the magnetic distortion. Experiments with free iron ions show that presence of iron ions does not contribute to magnetic distortion; while experiments with bentonite-based fluids show a strong effect of bentonite on magnetic shielding. Albeit earlier measurements showing a strong dependency of the content of organophilic clay, clean laboratory prepared oil-based drilling fluids show no increased shielding when adding organophilic hectorite clays. The anticipated difference between these two cases is outlined in the paper. When eroded steel from an offshore drilling site is added into the oil-based drilling fluid, it is found that these swarf and steel fines significantly increase the magnetic shielding of the drilling fluid. The paper outlines how the drilling direction may be distorted by the presence of these additives and contaminants and how this relates to the rheological properties of the drilling fluid.
TOPICS: Fluids, Drilling, Rheology, Errors, Iron, Magnetic shielding, Steel, Ions, Magnetometers, Poles (Building), Drills (Tools), Solids, Wells, Weight (Mass), Wear, Scrap metals, Underwater drilling, Magnetic materials, Arctic region

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