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Accepted Manuscripts

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Technical Brief  
Yizhang Li, Xinyang Miao, Honglei Zhan, Wei Wang, Rima Bao, Wenxiu Leng and Kun Zhao
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038664
Optical assessment of oil shale using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was carried out to study oil potential. Fischer Assay testing was employed to obtain the oil yield of oil shale specimens to examine the difference of oil potential between oil shale samples from three regions: Beipiao, Barkol and Huadian in China. Then, two types of specimens from each area were prepared for the optical tests and the results were compared. The refractive index (n) at 0.2-1.2 THz was derived; n decreased slowly with increasing frequency for all the specimens despite the oscillation pattern observed at lower frequencies. The specimen preparation method that mixed the powdered material led to minor differences between the specimens. The different response of kerogen to the terahertz pulse depending on the kerogen's evolutionary stage leads to a difference in the refractive index between the specimens from the various regions. This study indicates that using THz-TDS to evaluate the oil content in oil shale without inducing reaction within the specimen can be an effective method for resource exploration.
TOPICS: Shales, Refractive index, Terahertz spectroscopy, Testing, China, Oscillations, Spectroscopy, Kerogen
research-article  
Robert Zarzycki and Marcin Panowski
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038665
Adsorption technologies have been used for gas separation for many years. Their characteristic feature is high life of the sorbents used, low energy expenditure and minim effect on the environment. The necessity of limitation of carbon dioxide emissions, which also concerns the energy sector, causes that more and more effective and efficient methods of CO2 capture from the flue gas are being tested. Among these technologies are adsorption technologies, which, however, require adequate initial preparation of flue gas introduced to the system of CO2 separation so that the flue gas is characterized by possibly lowest temperature and does not contain water. The study presents the concept and calculations for the system for flue gas preparation using the adsorption chiller for the purposes of CO2 separation by means of the adsorption method. The calculations presented in the study show that cooling the flue gas and their drying can be achieved at low energy expenditure while improving the efficiency of the system of CO2 separation from flue gas and reducing its dimensions.
TOPICS: Separation (Technology), Carbon dioxide, Flue gases, Water, Carbon capture and storage, Emissions, Drying, Dimensions, Sorbents, Temperature, Cooling
research-article  
Michael Angerer, Michael Djukow, Karsten Riedl, Stephan Gleis and Hartmut Spliethoff
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038666
In the course of the 'Energiewende' the German electricity market is undergoing major changes. The state-aided prior- ity of renewable generation has led to a significant decline in electricity prices. This reduces the profit margin of cogener- ation units and increases the necessity of flexible operation to avoid electricity production when spot prices drop below marginal costs. In this work, a 100 MWel combined-cycle power plant supplying heat and power to a paper mill is in- vestigated. Currently, the plant is operated heat-controlled and is therefore unable to react to changing electricity spot prices. With the integration of a heat storage, the plant is enabled to switch to power-controlled mode. To evaluate the technical impact of the storage, the plant and a thermochem- ical MgO/Mg(OH) 2 storage are modeled using the station- ary process simulation tool EBSILON Professional. Differ- ent operation modes are investigated and results are used to derive a mixed integer linear programming model to opti- mize the operation of the plant/storage system. Using this method, the overall economic impact of the storage on the plant operation is quantified.
TOPICS: Simulation, Energy storage, Combined cycle power stations, Combined heat and power, Storage, Heat, Heat storage, Process simulation, Switches, Integer programming
research-article  
Srinivas Swaroop Kolla, Ram S. Mohan and Ovadia Shoham
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038622
The gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone (GLCC©) is a simple, compact and low-cost separator, which provides an economically attractive alternative to conventional gravity based separators over a wide range of applications. Over the past 22 years more than 6,500 GLCC©s have been installed around the world by the Petroleum and related industries. However, to-date no systematic study has been carried out on its structural integrity. The GLCC© inlet section design is a key parameter, which is crucial for its performance and proper operation. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation results aimed at investigating the effect of various parameters on the inlet section structural integrity. Finally, recommendations on design modifications are presented, directed at strengthening the inlet section.
TOPICS: Gravity (Force), Design, Finite element analysis, Petroleum, Simulation results
research-article  
Zheng Tong, Guangmin Zhao and Songbo Wei
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038623
For liquid-loading gas wells, effective deliquification operation is needed but current liquid-lifting technology is not able to meet the requirements of high efficiency as well as low cost especially in large-deviated wells. This paper proposes a hybrid deliquification technology combining plunger lift, chemical foamer injection and down-hole monitoring to unload liquid in deviated gas wells. The system comprised multi-part plunger body, deployment-retrieving integrating assembly (DRIA) and operation canisters. By means of flexible plunger body, the system performs deliquification normally in deviated wellbore. The operation canisters are carried with plunger body through tubing onto the bottom of deviated section to operate in terms of 4 modes: long-term down-hole mornitoring, foamer injection, mobile data acquisition and wireless data exchange with the wellhead. The key components of DRIA and injection valve are made of improved disintegrating alloy with the rating temperature of 100?, compressive strength of 370MPa and disintegrating rate of 170.9mg/(cm2hr) characterized by lab test. Field trials were successfully performed in 2 liquid-loading tight gas wells and the maximal deviated angle of the wells was 68º. It indicates that the new technology is a cost-effective way contributing to automatic production and management of mature gas wells in the remote area instead of traditional rigid plunger and wire-line logging.
TOPICS: Wells, Natural gas fields, Monitoring systems, Natural gas wells, Tubing, Compressive strength, Valves, Manufacturing, Wire, Alloys, Data acquisition, Temperature
research-article  
Achinta Sarkar and Ujjwal K. Saha
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038624
Dual fuel diesel (DFD) engines have been gaining its popularity due to the flexibility of using both bio and fossil liquid and gaseous fuels. Further, the efficient combustion in DFD mode with bio liquid and gaseous fuel can greatly reduce the greenhouse gas emissions as well as the dependency on fossil diesel. In recent times, a host of investigation has been done in normal dual fuel diesel (nDFD) mode with pure diesel and biogas. However, the engines with ethanol blended with diesel and intake charge (biogas-air mixture) with preheating have not been studied. In the present study, 5% ethanol blended with diesel (E5) and biogas with preheating are used in dual fuel engine (DFD-E5) to find its performance and emission characteristics. In order to have a direct comparison of performances, an engine with pure diesel (E0) and biogas with preheating is also tested in dual fuel mode (DFD-E0). In all the cases, the effect of total equivalence ratio on engine overall performance has also been investigated. In DFD-E5 mode, and at the maximum torque of 21.78 N-m, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) increases by 2.98% as compared to nDFD mode. At the same torque, there is no trace of CO whereas there is a reduction of HC emission by 62.22% with respect to PD mode. The NOx is found to decrease in DFD modes in contrast to PD mode.
TOPICS: Fuels, Biogas, Diesel, Diesel engines, Ethanol, Engines, Emissions, Torque, Combustion, Gaseous fuels, Nitrogen oxides, Brakes, Thermal efficiency
research-article  
Robert Mitchell and Daniel B. Olsen
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038625
New drilling techniques have increased availability and decreased costs of oil and gas. The decreased costs have caused an increase in drilling activity. The well sites have a large power demand that is typically met by diesel engines for the drilling derrick, fracking pumps and electrical power. Dual fuel retrofit kits are being increasingly used at well sites to reduce operating costs and the amount of fuel trucked in to the site. Natural gas is cheaper compared to diesel and can be delivered to the site by the pipeline limiting the disturbance to surrounding communities due to diesel truck loads. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of a typical dual fuel retrofit kit commissioned for field operation on a 6.8L Tier II diesel engine. After the baseline commissioning, the mechanisms limiting further substitution were clearly identified as engine knock similar to end gas auto-ignition in spark ignited engines and governor instability. Two methods are examined for their ability to increase substitution limits by adjusting the start of injection timing (SOI) and the intake air manifold temperature (AMT). Retarding the SOI is able to delay the onset of knock at high loads and therefore increase the substitution level by around 4% at full load. At high loads lowering the air manifold temperature is able to increase the substitution levels by around 10%. Preheating the intake air was able to increase low load substitution levels by 10% as well.
TOPICS: Fuels, Engines, Diesel, Stress, Drilling, Silicon-on-insulator, Diesel engines, Manifolds, Temperature, Electricity (Physics), Derricks, Governors, Natural gas, Pipelines, Pumps, Delays, Trucks, Hydraulic fracturing, Ignition
research-article  
Abid Karim and Zeeshan Shahid
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038588
Vehicles are getting transformed from a single source of energy to dual or multiple sources of energy due to ever-increasing fuel problems and environment related issues. Although hybrid vehicles provide environmental friendly option, however, they require sophisticated mechanical, electrical and electronic parts and systems. As a result, hybrid cars are more expensive than fossil fuel based conventional cars. One of the cost effective options is to convert used fossil fuel based conventional cars into hybrid or electric cars. This conversion requires installation of electric motor and complex electronic control system for smooth and safe operation. This paper present necessary details about the conversion of a conventional fossil fuel based car into solar-electric hybrid (SOLECT) car.
TOPICS: Solar energy, Hybrid electric vehicles, Gasoline, Fossil fuels, Automobiles, Electric vehicles, Vehicles, Electric motors, Control systems, Fuels
research-article  
Cheng Xu and Ryo Amano
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038387
The centrifugal compressors are widely used in industrial applications. The design, manufacturing, and installation are all critical for the compressor performance. Many studies have been carried out in the past to optimize the compressor performance during compressor design. The manufacturing tolerances and installation errors can cause the performance drop. There are many compressor performance distortions are not fully understood due to manufacturing and facilities. In this paper, an asymmetrical radial clearance of the impeller due to manufacturing and installation is studied in details for the performance impacts. The numerical studies and experimental tests indicated that the asymmetric radial clearance impacts the compressor flow field and performance. Experimental results suggested that the manufacturing and installation cause radial clearance asymmetric decreases the compressor performance in whole operating range. The numerical analysis demonstrated that the impeller asymmetric clearance impact performance near the design pressure ratio more than another pressure ratio. The numerical studies showed that the maximum clearance location of asymmetric clearance may impact the compressor performance. The proper asymmetricity of diffuser verse the volute may benefit the compressor performance. The good compressor performances for centrifugal compressors especially for small centrifugal compressors not only need to have a good aerodynamic design but also need to control manufacturing and installation carefully.
TOPICS: Compressors, Clearances (Engineering), Manufacturing, Design, Impellers, Pressure, Flow (Dynamics), Diffusers, Numerical analysis, Errors
research-article  
Julian Jedrzejewski and Malgorzata Hanuszkiewicz-Drapala
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038117
The paper presents the possibilities of the use of a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor for energy purposes in the hydrogen and electricity production process. The system provides heat for a thermochemical sulfur-iodine cycle producing hydrogen and generates electricity. Its structure and electricity generation capacity are conditioned by the demand for heat and the levels of temperature required at the sulfur-iodine cycle individual stages. In the three structures under analysis, electricity is generated in a gas turbine system and steam systems (steam, low-boiling fluids). The impact of helium parameters in a two-stage compression system with interstage cooling on power efficiency of the analyzed structures of cogeneration systems and on total power efficiency of the systems is investigated assuming that both hydrogen and electricity are produced. Thermodynamic analyses are conducted using the EBSILON Professional program. The aim of the analyses is to determine the optimum structure of the system and parameters of the mediums in terms of power efficiency.
TOPICS: Heat, Cycles, Nuclear reactors, Sulfur, High temperature, Very high temperature reactors, Hydrogen, Energy efficiency, Steam, Helium, Electric power generation, Structural optimization, Boiling, Cogeneration systems, Gas turbines, Compression, Temperature, Cooling, Fluids, Manufacturing
research-article  
Arild Saasen, Songxiong Ding, Per Amund Amundsen and Kristoffer Tellefsen
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4033304
Materials such as added clays, weight materials, drill solids and metalic wear products in the drilling fluid are known to distort the geomagnetic field at the location of the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool magnetometers that are used to measure the direction of well path. This distortion contributes to substantial errors in determination of azimuth while drilling deviated wells. These errors may result in missing the target of a long deviated 12 ¼” section in the range of 1-200m; representing a significant cost to be mitigated. The error becomes even more pronounced if drilling occurs in arctic regions close to the magnetic North Pole ( or South Pole). The effect on the magnetometer readings is obviously linked to the kinds and amounts of magnetic materials in the drilling fluid. The problem has recently been studied by laboratory experiments and analyses of downhole survey data. A series of experiments has been carried out to understand how some drilling fluid additives relate to the magnetic distortion. Experiments with free iron ions show that presence of iron ions does not contribute to magnetic distortion; while experiments with bentonite-based fluids show a strong effect of bentonite on magnetic shielding. Albeit earlier measurements showing a strong dependency of the content of organophilic clay, clean laboratory prepared oil-based drilling fluids show no increased shielding when adding organophilic hectorite clays. The anticipated difference between these two cases is outlined in the paper. When eroded steel from an offshore drilling site is added into the oil-based drilling fluid, it is found that these swarf and steel fines significantly increase the magnetic shielding of the drilling fluid. The paper outlines how the drilling direction may be distorted by the presence of these additives and contaminants and how this relates to the rheological properties of the drilling fluid.
TOPICS: Fluids, Drilling, Rheology, Errors, Iron, Magnetic shielding, Steel, Ions, Magnetometers, Poles (Building), Drills (Tools), Solids, Wells, Weight (Mass), Wear, Scrap metals, Underwater drilling, Magnetic materials, Arctic region

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