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Accepted Manuscripts

BASIC VIEW  |  EXPANDED VIEW
research-article  
Dario Colorado-Garrido
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042003
This work presents a theoretical thermodynamic study of a compression-absorption cascade refrigeration system using R134a and a lithium bromide-water solution as working fluids. First and second law of thermodynamics analyses were carried out in order to develop an advanced exergetic analysis, by splitting the total irreversibility and that of every component. The potential for improvement of the system is quantified, in the illustrated base-case 55.4% of the irreversibility is of avoidable nature and it could be reduced. The evaporator is the component that shows a significant potential for improvement, followed by the cascade heat exchanger, the compressor and finally, the generator. The results of the advanced exergetic analysis can be very useful for future design and experimentation of these kinds of systems.
TOPICS: Cascades (Fluid dynamics), Refrigeration, Compression, Exergy analysis, Absorption, Compressors, Fluids, Generators, Lithium, Water, Second law of thermodynamics, Design, Heat exchangers
research-article  
Mohamed Hassan, H. M. Abdel-Hameed and Osama E. Mahmoud
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042004
Climatic change illustrates the need to new policy of load management. In this research, a special design of thermal energy storage (TES) system, with an appropriate storage medium that is suitable for residential and commercial buildings has been constructed and commissioned. Direct contact heat transfer is one of the most factors to enhance the performance of TES. Numerous experimental runs were conducted to investigate the clathrate formation and the characteristics of the proposed TES cooling system, in addition, the effect of using nanofluid particles AL2O3 on the formation of clathrate under different operating parameters was evaluated. The experiments were conducted with fixed amount of water 15 kg, mass of refrigerant to form clathrate of 6.5kg, nanofluid particles concentration ranged from 0.5 to 2% and the mass flux of refrigerant varied from 150 to 300 kg/m2 sec. The results indicate that there is a significant effect of using nanoparticles concentration on the charging time of the clathrate formation. The percentage of reduction in charging time of about 22 % was achieved for high nanoparticles concentration. In addition, an enhancement in charging time by increasing the refrigerant flow rate reaches 38% when the mass flux varied from 200 to 400 kg/m2 sec. New correlation describing the behavior of the temperatures with the charging time at different nanoparticles concentrations is presented.
TOPICS: Nanofluids, Thermal energy storage, Refrigerants, Nanoparticles, Particulate matter, Stress, Design, Flow (Dynamics), Temperature, Heat transfer, Cooling systems, Structures, Storage, Water, Climate change
research-article  
Xiaoxiao Meng, Wei Zhou, Emad Rokni, Honghua Zhao, Rui Sun and Yiannis Levendis
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4042005
This research investigated the effects of the specific primary air flowrate (?air) on the combustion behavior of a 50-50 wt% blend of raw corn straw and raw pinewood wastes in a fixed-bed reactor. This parameter was varied in the range of 0.079-0.226 kg m-2s-1, which changed the overall combustion stoichiometry from air-lean (excess air coefficient ?=0.73) to air-rich (excess of coefficient ?=1.25) and affected the combustion efficiency, stability and emissions of hazardous pollutants. It was observed that by increasing ?air the ignition delay time first increased and then decreased, the average bed temperatures increased, both the average flame propagation rates and the burning rates increased, and the combustion efficiencies also increased. The emissions of CO as well as those of cumulative gas phase nitrogen compounds increased, the latter mostly because of increasing HCN, while those of NO were rather constant. The emissions of HCl decreased but those of other chlorine-containing species increased. The effect of ?air on conversion of sulfur to SO2 was minor. By considering all of the aforesaid factors, a mildly overall air-rich (fuel-lean) (?=1.04) operating condition can be suggested for corn-straw/pinewood burning fixed-bed grate-fired reactors.
TOPICS: Combustion, Emissions, Ignition delay, Stability, Temperature, Fuels, Fireplaces, Flames, Nitrogen compounds, Stoichiometry, Sulfur, Pollution
Review Article  
Xiaoyan Meng and Daoyong (Tony) Yang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041929
Over the past few decades, due to the special features (i.e., easily produced, large-surface-area-to-volume ratio, and engineered particles with designed surface properties), nanoparticles have not only attracted great attentions from the oil and gas industry, but also had various applications from drilling and completion, reservoir characterization, to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). As sensors or EOR agents, thus, fate and behaviour of nanoparticles in porous media are essential and need to be investigated thoroughly. Nevertheless, most of the published review papers focus on particle transport in saturated porous media, and all of them are about steady-state flow conditions. So far, no attempts have been extended to systematically review current knowledge about nanoparticle transport in porous media with single-phase and two-phase flow systems under both steady-state and unsteady-state conditions. Accordingly, this review will discuss nanoparticle transport phenomena in porous media with its focus on the filtration mechanisms, the underlying interaction forces, and factors dominating nanoparticle transport behaviour in porous media. Finally, mathematical models used to describe nanoparticle transport in porous media for both single-phase flow and two-phase flow under steady-state and transient flow conditions will be summarized, respectively.
TOPICS: Porous materials, Nanoparticles, Tertiary petroleum recovery, Steady state, Two-phase flow, Flow (Dynamics), Particulate matter, Reservoirs, Drilling, Filtration, Sensors, Petroleum industry, Surface properties, Transport phenomena, Unsteady flow
research-article  
Abdul Khaliq, Mohamed A. Habib and Keshavendra Choudhary
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041898
This paper reports the comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a combustion gas turbine plant where Brayton refrigeration cycle was employed for inlet air cooling along with evaporative after cooling. Exergetic evaluation was combined with the emission computation to ascertain the effects of operating variables like; extraction pressure ratio, extracted mass rate, turbine inlet temperature, ambient relative humidity, and mass of injected water on the thermo-environmental performance of the gas turbine cycle. Investigation of the proposed gas turbine cycle revealed an exergetic output of 33%, compared to 29% for base case. Proposed modification in basic gas turbine shows a drastic reduction in cycle's exergy loss from 24% to 3% with a considerable decrease in the percentage of local irreversibility of the compressor from 5% to 3% along with a rise in combustion irreversibility from 19% to 21%. The environmental advantage of adding evaporative after cooling to gas turbine cycle along with inlet air cooling can be seen from the significant reduction of NOx from 40g/kg of fuel to1x10-9g/kg of fuel with the moderate increase of CO concentration from 36g/kg of fuel to 99g/kg of fuel when the fuel-air equivalence ratio reduces from 1.0 to 0.3. Emission assessment further reveals that increase in ambient relative humidity from 20% to 80% causes a considerable reduction in NOx concentration from 9.5 to 5.8g/kg of fuel while showing a negligible raise in CO concentration from 4.4 to 5.0g/kg of fuel.
TOPICS: Cooling, Compressors, Combustion gases, Turbines, Underground injection, Fuels, Gas turbines, Cycles, Nitrogen oxides, Emissions, Refrigeration cycles, Water, Computation, Modeling, Exergy, Combustion, Pressure, Temperature
Discussion  
Ehsan Heidaryan
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041844
Mathematical methods such as empirical correlations, analytical models, numerical simulations, and data-intensive computing (data-driven models) are key in the modeling of energy science and engineering. Accrediting of different models and deciding on the best method however, is a serious challenge even for experts, as the application of models are not limited only to estimations, but to predictions and derivative properties. In this note, by combining meaningful metrics of accuracy and precision, a new metric for determining the best-in-class method was defined.
TOPICS: Computer simulation, Accuracy and precision, Modeling
research-article  
Ali Papi, Ali Mohebbi and Seyed Ehsan Eshraghi
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041839
In order to lessen the computational time in fractured oil reservoir simulations, all fractures are usually assumed to be as one equivalent fracture at the center or around the model. In this study, the feasibility and accuracy of applying an equivalent single-fracture model instead of a fracture network model were studied, while the effect of fracture aperture on composition distribution of a binary and a ternary mixture was also investigated. These mixtures were C1 (methane)/n-C4 (normal-butane) and C1 (methane)/C2 (ethane)/n-C4 (normal-butane) which were under diffusion and natural convection. Governing equations were numerically solved. Using two general contradictory examples, it is shown that ignoring a fracture network and assuming an equivalent single-fracture has no logical justification and results in a considerable error. Using this study, one can find the optimum permeability, namely the permeability at which the maximum species separation happens, and the threshold permeability (permeability or fracture aperture), after which the convection imposes its effect on composition distribution. It is found that the threshold permeability is not constant. Also, one can find that full mixing happens in the model, namely heavy and light densities of top and bottom mix up together in the model. Furthermore, after maximum separation point, convection causes unification of components. For instance, in one case, the horizontal composition gradient reached from 0.01 methane mole fraction per meter to 0.0025 methane mole fraction per meter, and vertical composition gradient of methane fell to near zero.
TOPICS: Porous materials, Fracture (Materials), Fracture (Process), Methane, Permeability, Convection, Separation (Technology), Diffusion (Physics), Simulation, Engineering simulation, Natural convection, Errors, Network models, Hydrocarbon reservoirs
research-article  
Ahmed Al-AbdulJabbar, Salaheldin Elkatatny, Mohamed Mahmoud, Khaled Abdelgawad and Abdulaziz Al-Majed
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041840
During the drilling operations, optimizing the rate of penetration (ROP) is very crucial because it can significantly reduce the overall cost of the drilling process. Several models have been developed in the literature to predict ROP. Most of the developed models used drilling parameters such as weight on bit (WOB), pumping rate (Q), and string revolutions per minute (RPM). Few researchers considered the effect mud properties on ROP by including a small number of actual field measurements. This paper introduces a new robust model to predict the ROP using both drilling parameters (WOB, Q, ROP, torque (T), standpipe pressure, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), and mud properties (density and viscosity) using 7000 real-time data measurements. The obtained results showed that the ROP is highly affected by WOB, RPM, T, and horsepower, where the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.71, 0.87,0.70, and 0.92, respectively. ROP also showed a strong function of mud fluid properties, where R2 was 0.70 and 0.70 for plastic viscosity and mud density, respectively. No clear relationship was observed between ROP and yield point. The new model predicts the ROP with average absolute percentage error of 5% and correlation coefficient of 0.93. in addition, the new model outperformed three existing ROP models. The novelty in this paper is the application of the clustering technique in which the formations are clustered based on UCS range to predict the ROP. Clustering yielded accurate ROP prediction compared to the field ROP.
TOPICS: Density, Weight (Mass), Torque, Pressure, Fluids, Viscosity, Horsepower, Drilling, String, Compressive strength, Errors, Yield point
research-article  
David Awakem, Marcel Obounou and Hermann Chopkap Noume
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041841
This work highlights the ability of the "Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP)" method to calculate the significant indices of the modes on evolution of species and the degree of participation of reactions. The exploitation of these indices allows us to deduce the reduced models of detailed mechanisms having the same physicochemical properties. The mechanism used is 16 species and 41 reversible reactions. A reduction of these 41 reactions to 22 reactions is made. A constant pressure application of the detailed and reduced mechanism is made in OpenFOAM free and open source code. Following the RANS simulation scheme, standard k - e and PaSR are respectively used as turbulence and combustion models. To validate the reduced mechanism, comparison of numerical results (temperature and mass fractions of the species) was done between the detailed mechanism and the simplified model. This was done using the DVODE integrator in perfectly stirred reactor (PSR). After simulation in the computational fluid code dynamic (CFD) OpenFoam, other comparisons were made. These comparisons were between the experimental data of a turbulent non-premixed diffusion flame of type "DLR-A flame", the reduced mechanism and the detailed mechanism. The calculation time using the simplified model is considerably reduced compared to that using the detailed mechanism. An excellent agreement has been observed between these two mechanisms, indicating that the reduced mechanism can reproduce very well the same result as the detailed mechanism. The accordance with experimental results is also good.
TOPICS: Turbulent diffusion, Flames, Methane, Turbulence, Simulation, Computational fluid dynamics, Pressure, Temperature, Combustion, Fluids, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, Diffusion flames
research-article  
Mahshid Nategh, Behzad Vaferi and Masoud Riazi
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041842
Fluid flow inside heterogeneous structure of dual porosity reservoirs is presented by two coupled partial differential equations (PDE). Finding an analytical solution for the diffusivity equations is tedious or even impossible in some circumstances due to the heterogeneity of dual porosity reservoirs. Therefore, in this study, orthogonal collocation method (OCM) is proposed for solving the governing equations in dual porosity reservoirs with constant pressure outer boundary. Since no analytical solution has been proposed for this system, validation is carried out by comparing the OCM-obtained results for 'dual porosity reservoirs with circular no-flow outer boundary' with both exact analytical solution and real field data. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the OCM with 13 collocation points is a good candidate for prediction of pressure transient response (PTR) in dual porosity reservoirs. OCM predicts the PTR of a real field draw-down test with an absolute average relative deviation (AARD) of 0.9%. Moreover, OCM shows a good agreement with the analytical solution obtained by Laplace transform (AARD=0.16%). It is worth noting that OCM requires a smaller computational effort. Thereafter, PTR of dual porosity reservoirs with a constant production rate in the wellbore and constant pressure outer boundary is simulated by OCM for wide ranges of operating conditions. Accuracy of OCM and its low required computational time justifies that this approximate method can be considered as a practical candidate for pressure transient analysis (PTA) in dual porosity reservoirs.
TOPICS: Reservoirs, Pressure, Porosity, Sensitivity analysis, Transient analysis, Fluid dynamics, Flow (Dynamics), Transients (Dynamics), Laplace transforms, Partial differential equations
research-article  
Musaab Magzoub, Mohamed Mahmoud, Mustafa Nasser, Ibnelwaleed Hussein, Salaheldin Elkatatny and Abdullah Sultan
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041843
The rheological properties of bentonite depend on the chemical composition and the dominant element, such as calcium, potassium, and sodium. Na-bentonite type is the one used in drilling fluids, because it has good dispersion stability, high swelling capacity, and outstanding rheological properties. Ca-bentonite has bad rheological performance, however it can be activated by sodium to be used in drilling fluids. Many previous attempts of activation of Ca-bentonite were not feasible, upgrading required addition of many extra additives or sometimes mixed with commercial Na-bentonite to improve its properties. In this paper, a process of integrated beneficiation method is designed to efficiently remove the non-clay impurities and produce pure Ca-bentonite. An upgraded Ca-bentonite was produced using a thermochemical treatment in a wet process by adding 4wt.% of soda ash (Na2CO3) while heating and stirring. The new thermal treatment optimized and described in this study greatly improved the sodium activation and ions exchange process and improved bentonite properties. The thermochemically upgraded Ca-bentonite outperformed the rheological properties of the commercial bentonite. And when tested in a typical drilling fluid formulation at high temperature, the investigations showed an identical behavior of the commercial drilling grade bentonite. Moreover, the results obtained showed that the thermochemically upgraded Ca-bentonite has higher yield point/plastic viscosity (YP/PV) ratio than commercial Na-bentonite when mixed with the drilling fluid additives. Higher YP/PV ratio is expected to enhance the hole cleaning and prevent most of the drilling problems
TOPICS: Fluids, Drilling, Rheology, Sodium, Yield point, Heating, High temperature, Potassium, Ore dressing, Viscosity, Stability, Ions
research-article  
Nur Alom and Ujjwal K. Saha
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041735
The elliptical-bladed Savonius wind turbine rotor has become a subject of interest because of its better energy capturing capability. Hitherto, the basic parameters of this rotor such as overlap ratio, aspect ratio, number of blades, and others have been studied and optimized numerically. Most of these studies estimated the torque and power coefficients (CT and CP) at given flow conditions. However, the two important aerodynamic forces viz., the lift and the drag acting on the elliptical-bladed rotor have not been studied. This calls for a deeper investigation into the effect of these forces on the rotor performance to arrive at a suitable design configuration. In view of this, at the outset, two-dimensional (2D) unsteady simulations are conducted to find the instantaneous lift and drag forces acting on an elliptical-bladed rotor at a Reynolds number (Re) = 0.892x105. The shear stress transport k-? turbulence model is used for solving the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The three-dimensional (3D) unsteady simulations are then performed which is then followed by the wind tunnel experiments. The drag and lift coefficients (CD and CL) are analyzed for 0o- 360o rotation of rotor with an increment of 1o. The total pressure, velocity magnitude and turbulence intensity contours are obtained at various angles of rotor rotation. For the elliptical-bladed rotor, the average CD are CL, from 3D simulation, are found to be 1.31 and 0.48, respectively; whereas the wind tunnel experiments demonstrate the CP to be 0.19.
TOPICS: Drag (Fluid dynamics), Rotors, Savonius wind turbines, Simulation, Rotation, Turbulence, Wind tunnels, Shear stress, Blades, Reynolds number, Flow (Dynamics), Aerodynamics, Torque, Pressure, Fluid-dynamic forces, Navier-Stokes equations, Design
research-article  
Qihong Feng, Ronghao Cui, Sen Wang, Jin Zhang and Zhe Jiang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041724
Diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide (CO2), a significant parameter describing the mass transfer process, exerts a profound influence on the safety of CO2 storage in depleted reservoirs, saline aquifers, and marine ecosystems. However, experimental determination of diffusion coefficient in CO2-brine system is time-consuming and complex because the procedure requires sophisticated laboratory equipment and reasonable interpretation methods. To facilitate the acquisition of more accurate values, an intelligent model, termed SVM-GA, is developed using a hybrid technique of support vector machine (SVM) and genetic algorithm (GA). Confirmed by the statistical evaluation indicators, our proposed model exhibits excellent performance with high accuracy and strong robustness in a wide range of temperatures (273-473.15K), pressures (0.1-49.3MPa), and viscosities (0.1388-1.95 mPa·s). Our results show that the proposed model is superior to the artificial neural network (ANN) model and four commonly-used traditional empirical correlations. The technique presented in this study can provide a fast and precise prediction of CO2 diffusivity in brine at reservoir conditions for the engineering design and the technical risk assessment during the process of CO2 injection.
TOPICS: Carbon dioxide, Support vector machines, Diffusion (Physics), Reservoirs, Artificial neural networks, Temperature, Tertiary petroleum recovery, Engineering design, Mass transfer, Viscosity, Safety, Carbon capture and storage, Genetic algorithms, Risk assessment, Robustness
research-article  
Raviteja Sammeta, Ramakrishna Periyapatna and Asvathanarayanan Ramesh
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041725
Nitromethane is extensively used in drag races and in glow plug unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) engines. However, it has not been analysed in the combustion literature enough. Nitromethane has a low stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, it can be blended with gasoline and used in larger quantities to enhance the power output of the internal combustion (IC) engines. This could find potential use in burgeoning UAV industry. The present investigation aims at experimentally determining the laminar burning speeds of nitromethane - gasoline blends at different equivalence ratios. Tests were conducted at both ambient conditions and at elevated temperatures and pressures. A constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) was constructed and instrumented to carry out the investigation. The pressure rise in the chamber due to combustion was acquired and analysed to determine the laminar burning speeds. The results showed that with an increase in the nitromethane concentration in gasoline, the laminar burning speeds for all the initial conditions also increased. With the rise in initial temperatures, the laminar burning speeds were observed to increase. However, a drop was observed with a rise in the initial pressures for all the blends. The obtained results for pure gasoline were compared with existing literature. A good match was observed. The investigation also aims at providing vital experimental data which can be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation studies later.
TOPICS: Temperature, Combustion, Gasoline, Unmanned aerial vehicles, Computational fluid dynamics, Engines, Drag (Fluid dynamics), Combustion chambers, Fuels, Pressure, Luminescence
research-article  
Andrew Hays and Kenneth Van Treuren
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041544
Wind energy has had a major impact on the generation of renewable energy. While most research and development focuses on large, utility-scale wind turbines, a new application is in the field of small wind turbines in the urban environment. A major design challenge for these urban wind turbines is the noise generated during operation. This study examines the power production and the noise generated by two small-scale wind turbines tested in a small wind tunnel. Both rotors were designed using the Blade-Element Momentum Theory and either the NREL S823 or the Eppler 216 airfoils. Point noise measurements were taken using a 1/4" microphone at three locations downstream of the turbine: 16% of the diameter (two chord lengths), 50% of the diameter, and 75% of the diameter. At each horizontal location downstream of the turbine, a vertical traverse was performed to analyze the sound pressure level from the tip of the turbine blades down to the hub. The rotor designed with the Eppler 216 airfoil showed a 9% increase in power production and decrease of up to 7 dB(A).
TOPICS: Energy generation, Cities, Noise (Sound), Wind turbines, Airfoils, Rotors, Turbines, Wind energy, Blades, Momentum, Industrial research, Turbine blades, Sound pressure, Chords (Trusses), Design, Microphones, Renewable energy, Wind tunnels

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