Accepted Manuscripts

Mohammad Ajmi, Dhafer Al-Shehri, Mohamed Mahmoud and Nasser Al-Hajri
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040237
In this paper we introduced a risk based methodology to predict the downhole casing leaks in oil and gas wells using advanced casing corrosion logs such as electromagnetic logs. Downhole casing corrosion was observed to assess the remaining well life. Electromagnetic (EM) corrosion logs are the current practice for monitoring the casing corrosion. EM tool gives average reading for the corrosion in the casing at a specific depth and it does not tell about the orientation of the corrosion. EM logs does not assess the 360o corrosion profile in the casing and it only provides average value and this may lead to wrong decision. All of this makes EM logs uncertain tools to assess the corrosion in the downhole casing. A unified criterion to assess the corrosion in the casing and to decide to go for workover operations or not has to be identified to minimize the field challenges related to this issue. A new approach was introduced in this paper to enhance the EM logs to detect the downhole casing corrosion. Corrosion data was collected from different fields (around 500 data points) to build a probabilistic approach to assess the casing failure based on the average metal loss from the EM corrosion log. The failure model was used to set the ranges for the casing failure and the probability of casing failure for different casings. The prediction of probability of failure will act as proactive maintenance which will help prevent further or future casing leaks.
TOPICS: Natural gas wells, Contamination, Risk, Corrosion, Failure, Probability, Leakage, Metals, Maintenance
Chuan Lu, Wei Zhao, Yongge Liu and Dr. Xiaohu Dong
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040200
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are mainly expected to be formed in the process of surfactant flooding for heavy oil reservoirs in order to strengthen the fluidity of heavy oil and enhance oil recovery. However, there is still a lack of detailed understanding of mechanisms and effects involved the flow of in-situ O/W emulsions in porous media. In this study, a pore-scale transparent model packed with glass beads was firstly constructed to investigate the transport and retention mechanisms of the in-situ generated O/W emulsion in porous media. Then, a double-sandpack model with different permeability values was used to further study the effect of the in-situ formed O/W emulsion on the improvement of sweep efficiency and oil recovery. The pore-scale visualization experiments replicated the in-situ emulsification process and showed that the in-situ formed O/W emulsion could absorb on the surface of pore-throats and plug pore-throats through the mechanisms of capture-plugging based on single emulsion droplet and superposition-plugging and annulus-plugging based on multiple emulsion droplets. The double-sandpack experiments proved that the in-situ formed O/W emulsion droplets transporting in porous media was beneficial for the mobility control and oil recovery enhancement in the low permeability sandpack. Besides, the particle distribution of emulsions produced from the high permeability sandpack proved that larger pressures were capable to displace more large O/W emulsion droplets out of the pore-throat and reduce their retention volume.
TOPICS: Porous materials, Displacement, Emulsions, Water, Drops, Petroleum extraction, Permeability, Flow (Dynamics), Particulate matter, Glass beads, Floods, Surfactants, Transparency, Mechanical admittance, Visualization, Annulus, Hydrocarbon reservoirs
Yongsheng Tan, Haitao Li, Xiang Zhou, Beibei Jiang, Yongqing Wang and Nan Zhang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040201
Numerical simulation and prediction studies on horizontal well performances in gas reservoir, are foundation for optimizing horizontal well completion process. To gain more understandings on this theory, a steady-state reservoir model, coupling with wellbore is developed in the fractured gas reservoirs with bottom-water and different fracture intensity, to predict the horizontal well performances. Based on the equivalent flow assumption, the fractured porous medium is transformed into anisotropic porous medium. So that, the gas reservoir flow model can be developed as a new model that incorporates formation permeability heterogeneity, reservoir anisotropy, and gas reservoir damage. The wellbore flow model, which considers pressure drops in the tubing is applied. We compare this paper model solutions for inflow profile along the well to the numerical solutions obtained from a commercial simulator (ECLIPSE 2011), and the result shows a very good agreement. Moreover, sensitive analysis, in terms of various linear densities of fractures, matrix permeability, fracture width, and wellbore pressure drop are implemented. The results shows that, the new model developed in this study can obtain a more practical representation to simulate the horizontal wells performance in fractured gas reservoir with different fracture intensity and bottom-water, thus can be used to optimize the parameters in horizontal well completion of fractured gas reservoirs with different fracture intensity and bottom-water.
TOPICS: Reservoirs, Fracture (Materials), Fracture (Process), Flow (Dynamics), Water, Oil well completion, Anisotropy, Permeability, Porous materials, Pressure drop, Steady state, Computer simulation, Wells, Tubing, Inflow, Damage
Oladapo S. Akinyemi, Lulin Jiang, Prashanth R. Buchireddy, Stanislav O. Barskov, John L. Guillory and William Holmes
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040202
Biomass torrefaction is a mild pyrolysis thermal treatment process carried out at temperature between 200 to 320 °C under inert conditions to improve fuel properties of parent biomass. Torrefaction yields a higher energy per unit mass product but releases non-condensable and condensable gases, signifying energy and mass losses. The condensable gases (volatiles) can result in tar formation on condensing hence, system blockage. Fortunately, hydrocarbon composition of volatiles represents a possible auxiliary energy source for feedstock drying and/or torrefaction process. The present study designed a low-pressure volatile burner for torrefaction of pine wood chips and investigated energy recovery from volatiles through clean co-combustion with natural gas (NG). The research studied the effect of torrefaction pretreatment temperatures on the amount of energy recovered for various combustion air flow rates. For all test conditions, blue flames and low emissions at the combustor exit consistently signified clean and complete premixed combustion. Torrefaction temperature at 283-292 °C had relatively low volatile energy recovery, mainly attributed to higher moisture content evolution and low molecular weight of volatiles evolved. At the lowest torrefaction pretreatment temperature, small amount of volatiles was generated with most energy recovered. Energy conservation evaluation on the torrefaction reactor indicated that about 40 percent of total energy carried by the exiting volatiles and gases has been recovered by the co-fire of NG and volatiles at the lowest temperature while 20 and 22 percent of the total energy were recovered at the intermediate and highest torrefaction temperature respectively.
TOPICS: Temperature, Combustion, Energy recovery, Biomass, Gases, Drying, Fuels, Air flow, Feedstock, Combustion chambers, Pine (Wood product), Energy resources, Fire, Natural gas, Flames, Molecular weight, Pyrolysis, Emissions, Co-firing, Energy conservation, Pressure
Liang Zhang, Jun Kang, Yin Zhang, Panfeng Zhang, Shaoran Ren, Santanu Khataniar and Xinyang Guo
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040205
The CO2 foam generated by using the conventional surfactants usually does not show long-term stability due to the substantial solubility and diffusivity of CO2 in water. SiO2 nanoparticles with different wettability and high adsorption energy on the gas-water interface can be used as a stabilizer to enhance the stability of the CO2 foam. In this study, 9 kinds of nonionic amine surfactants were employed to generate the CO2 foam, while 3 kinds of silica nanoparticles were selected and added to improve the CO2 foam stability. The influences of various factors, including pressure, temperature, pH, surfactant, and nanoparticle, on the CO2 foam stability have been investigated. It has been found that, without nanoparticles, the stability of generated CO2 foam decreases with the increase of the number of EO groups in the ethoxylated amine surfactant, especially under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. In general, the nanoparticles at low concentration (<0.5wt%) have little influence on the CO2 foam stability. However, adding nanoparticles to a higher concentration (1.0 wt%) can improve the CO2 foam stability significantly. In particular, by adding 1.0 wt% nanoparticle of QS-150 to 0.5wt% surfactant of C18N(EO)2/10, the CO2 foam stability has been increased 5-6 times, while the volume of generated CO2 foam has been increased by 17-31%. Therefore, in this study, the synergetic mechanisms between the amine surfactants and silica nanoparticles to generate and stabilize CO2 foam have been identified.
TOPICS: Stability, Nanoparticles, Carbon dioxide, Surfactants, Water, High temperature, Pressure, Quartz, Temperature, High pressure (Physics)
Shahram Derakhshan, Seyedeh Elnaz Mirazimzadeh and Syamak Pazireh
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040189
Salt gradient solar ponds are the ponds in which due to existence of saline and salt gradient layers, lower layers are denser and avoid occurring natural convection phenomenon so solar radiation energy can be stored in lowest zone. In this study, 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional numerical approaches have been done to simulate unsteady buoyancy driven flow of solar ponds. In 1D method, the pond has been investigated on its layers height in which variation of temperature is calculated by mass and energy conservation and mass transfer equations. The formulized radiation term was used as energy source term in energy equation. The results of 1D approach were validated with an experimental study and then optimization was carried out to gain height of layers to obtain maximum thermal efficiency. In 2D study, in order to investigate hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of saltwater fluid, a numerical approach was used to simulate temperature and velocity gradients throughout the pond. The results of 2D numerical method are validated with an experimental data. The effective parameters in physic of solar ponds are introduced.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Buoyancy, Solar energy, Temperature, Mass transfer, Fluids, Solar radiation, Radiation (Physics), Energy conservation, Energy resources, Natural convection, Numerical analysis, Optimization, Thermal efficiency
Xiaohui Sun, Baojiang Sun, Yonghai Gao and Zhiyuan Wang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040190
The interaction between hydrated bubble growth and multiphase flow dynamics is important in deepwater wellbore/pipeline flow. In this study, we derived a hydrate shell growth model considering the intrinsic kinetics, mass and heat transfer, and hydrodynamics, in which a partly coverage assumption is introduced for elucidating the synergy of bubble hydrodynamics and hydrate morphology. Moreover, a hydro-thermo-hydrate model is developed considering the intercoupling effects including interphase mass and heat transfer, and the slippage of hydrate coated bubble. Through comparison with experimental data, the performance of proposed model is validated and evaluated. The model is applied to analyze the wellbore dynamics process of kick evolution during deepwater drilling. The simulation results show that the hydrate formation region is mainly near the seafloor affected by the fluid temperature and pressure distributions along the wellbore. The volume change and mass transfer rate of a hydrated bubble vary complicatedly, because of hydrate formation, hydrate decomposition and bubble dissolution (both gas and hydrate). Moreover, hydrate phase transition can significantly alter the void fraction and migration velocity of free gas in two aspects: (1) when gas enters the hydrate stability field, a solid hydrate shell will form on the gas bubble surface, and thereby the velocity and void fraction of free gas can be considerably decreased; (2) the free gas will separate from solid hydrate and expand rapidly near the sea surface (outside the hydrate stability field), which can lead to an abrupt hydrostatic pressure loss and explosive development of the gas kick.
TOPICS: Dynamics (Mechanics), Simulation, Multiphase flow, Bubbles, Heat transfer, Porosity, Shells, Stability, Hydrodynamics, Temperature, Phase transitions, Mass transfer, Flow (Dynamics), Pressure, Simulation results, Seas, Seabed, Explosives, Fluids, Underwater drilling, Hydrostatic pressure, Pipelines
Haojie Li, Yangrong Chen, YunFei Yan, Cheng Hu, Hu Fan and Shuai Feng
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040191
In consideration of high heat transfer efficiency and stable combustion, a new type of micro planar combustor for micro-TPV (micro-thermophotovoltaic) system is proposed, in which the heat transfer is enhanced by staggered cylindrical array. The numerical study results indicate that the temperature of radiation wall of cylindrical-array combustor is higher and more uniform comparing with the conventional-channel combustor, the application of cylindrical-array make the effective radiation of the combustor increase 34.55% and reach to 35.98w. Moreover, with inlet velocity increase from 4m/s to 16m/s, the cylindrical-array combustor shows the better stability of combustion, which the position of the flame moves 4.8mm in the cylindrical-array combustor and 9.1mm in the conventional-channel combustor. However, the 0.5-4.5 equivalence ratio range for stable combustion is slightly narrower than 0.4-6.0 in the conventional-channel combustor. To extend the equivalence ratio range, one row of cylindrical array was cancelled and the distribution length of cylindrical array was reduced to 10mm, After this improvement, the equivalence ratio range is extended to 0.3-5.5, the negative effect on the flame stability of the cylindrical array is basically eliminated.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Combustion chambers, Combustion, Radiation (Physics), Stability, Flames, Temperature
Mahmoud Khalifeh, Arild Saasen, Helge Hodne, Rune God⊘y and Torbj⊘rn Vrålstad
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040192
Geopolymers, being inorganic polymers created from rock sources, were evaluated as an alternative to Portland cement. To evaluate their usability some properties of a selected geopolymer were measured and compared with those from a neat class G Portland cement. The geopolymeric slurries showed a non-Newtonian viscosity behavior with a measurable, albeit low, yield stress. The pumpability measurements using atmospheric and pressurized consistometer showed an adequate set profile for both the geopolymer and cement sample. Static fluid loss test show that the geopolymeric slurries experienced a lower fluid loss compared to that of the Portland cement. The shrinkage factor for the geopolymers was reduced (expanded) as the downhole temperature was ramped up. The shrinkage of the Portland cement sample proceeded only with a lower rate. Tensile strength of the geopolymers was approximately 5% of their compressive strength; however, this value for Portland cement was approximately 10% of its compressive strength. Finally, shear bond strength of geopolymers would benefit from improvement.
TOPICS: Temperature, Fluids, Viscosity, Oil well cementing, Cements (Adhesives), Shear (Mechanics), Compressive strength, Bond strength, Shrinkage (Materials), Polymers, Slurries, Rocks, Tensile strength, Yield stress
Oghare V Ogidiama, Mohammad Abu Zahra and Tariq Shamim
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040193
High energy penalty and cost are major obstacles in the wide spread use of CO2 capture techniques for reducing CO2 emissions. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an innovative means of achieving CO2 capture with less cost and low energy penalty. This paper conducts a detailed techno-economic analysis of a natural gas-fired CLC based power plant. The power plant capacity is 1000MWth gross power on a lower heating value (LHV) basis. The analysis was done using Aspen Plus. The cost analysis was done by considering the plant location to be in the United Arab Emirates. The plant performance was analyzed by using the cost of equipment, cost of electricity, payback period and the cost of capture. The performance of the CLC system was also compared with a conventional natural gas combined cycle plant of the same capacity integrated with a post combustion CO2 capture technology. The analysis shows that the CLC system had a plant efficiency of 55.6%, electricity cost of 5.5 cents/kWh, payback time of 3.77 years and the CO2 capture cost of $27.5/ton. In comparison, a similar NGCC power plant with CO2 capture had an efficiency of 50.6%, cost of electricity of 6.1 cents/kWh, payback period of 4.57 years and the capture cost of $42.9/ton. This analysis shows the economic advantage of the CLC integrated power plants.
TOPICS: Power stations, Combustion, Carbon capture and storage, Emissions, Natural gas, Carbon dioxide, Combined cycle power stations, Heating
Andrea Toffolo, Sergio Rech and Andrea Lazzaretto
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040194
The fundamental challenge in the synthesis/design optimization of energy systems is the definition of system configuration and design parameters. The traditional way to operate is to follow the previous experience, starting from existing design solutions. A more advanced strategy consists in the preliminary identification of a superstructure that should include all the possible solutions to the synthesis/design optimization problem, and in the selection of the system configuration starting from this superstructure through a design parameter optimization. This top-down approach cannot guarantee that all possible configurations could be predicted in advance and that all the configurations derived from the superstructure are feasible. To solve the general problem of the synthesis/design of complex energy systems a new bottom-up methodology has been recently proposed by the authors, based on the original idea that the fundamental nucleus in the construction of any energy system configuration is the elementary thermodynamic cycle, composed only by the compression, heat transfer with hot and cold sources and expansion processes. So, any configuration can be built by generating, according to a rigorous set of rules, all the combinations of the elementary thermodynamic cycles operated by different working fluids that can be identified within the system, and selecting the best resulting configuration through an optimization procedure. In this paper the main concepts and features of the methodology are deeply investigated to show, through different applications, how an artificial intelligence can generate system configurations of various complexity using preset logical rules without any "ad hoc" expertise.
TOPICS: Energy / power systems, Design, Optimization, Thermodynamic cycles, Artificial intelligence, Heat transfer, Fluids, Construction, Compression
Ahmed Abdel Rahman and Esmail M. A. Mokheimer
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040195
Cooling the air before entering the compressor of a gas turbine of combined cycle power plants is an effective method to boost the output power of the combined cycles in hot regions. This paper presents a comparative analysis for the effect of different air cooling technologies on increasing the output power of a combined cycle. It also presents a novel system of cooling the gas turbine inlet air using a solar-assisted absorption chiller. The effect of ambient air temperature and relative humidity on the output power is investigated and reported. The study revealed that at the design hour under the hot weather conditions, the total net power output of the plant drops from 268 MW to 226 MW at 48 oC (15.5% drop). The increase in the power output using fogging and evaporative cooling is less than that obtained with chillers since their ability to cool down the air is limited by the wet-bulb temperature. Integrating conventional and solar-assisted absorption chillers increased the net power output of the combined cycle by about 35 MW and 38 MW, respectively. Average and hourly performance during typical days have been conducted and presented. The plants without air inlet cooling system show higher carbon emissions (0.73 kg CO2/kWh) compared to the plant integrated with conventional and solar-assisted absorption chillers (0.509 kg CO2/kWh ) and (0.508 kg CO2/kWh ), respectively. Also, integrating a conventional absorption chiller shows the lowest capital cost and levelized electricity cost (LEC).
TOPICS: Gas turbines, Solar energy, Cooling, Combined cycles, Absorption, Carbon dioxide, Temperature, Cooling systems, Combined cycle power stations, Emissions, Compressors, Evaporative cooling, Carbon, Design
Esmaeel Khanmirza, Reza Madoliat and Ali Pourfard
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040073
Compressor stations in natural gas networks should perform such that time-varying demands of customers are fulfilled while all of the system constraints are satisfied. Power consumption of compressor stations impose the most operational cost to a gas network so their optimal performance will lead to significant money saving. In this paper, the gas network transient optimization problem is addressed. The objective function is the sum of the compressor's power consumption that should be minimized where compressor speeds and the value status are decision variables . This objective function is nonlinear which is subjected to nonlinear and combinatorial constraints including both discrete and continuous variables. To handle this challenging optimization problem a novel approach based on using two different structure intelligent algorithms, namely the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and cultural algorithm (CA) are utilized to find the optimum of the decision variables. This approach removes the necessity of finding an explicit expression for the power consumption of compressors as a function of decision variables as well as calculation of objective function derivatives . The objective function and constraints are evaluated in the transient condition by a fully implicit finite difference numerical method. The proposed approach is applied on a real gas network where simulation results confirm its accuracy and efficiency.
TOPICS: Transients (Dynamics), Algorithms, Natural gas, Optimization, Compressors, Energy consumption, Particle swarm optimization, Simulation results, Numerical analysis
Aalia Rakhshi and Tomasz Wiltowski
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4040061
A kinetics assessment of the quasi-global homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction mechanisms is carried out for entrained flow coal gasification modeling. Accurate closure of the chemical source term in gasification modeling necessitates a detailed study of turbulence-chemistry interaction. Towards this end, time-scale analysis of the homogeneous reactions is discussed using eigenvalue analysis of the reaction rate Jacobian matrix. A singular value decomposition of the stoichiometric reaction matrix is performed to assess the behavior of the homogeneous reactions in a reduced species vector space. The significant factors affecting the heterogeneous char reactions is assessed and the relative importance of bulk diffusion and inherent char kinetics is analyzed in a gasifier. A thermodynamically consistent volatile breakdown kinetic mechanism is outlined incorporating the heat of its reaction obtained from the higher heating value (HHV) of coal. The overall study is carried out using numerical and experimental results of an actual pilot scale gasifier.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Modeling, Fuel gasification, Coal, Grain boundary diffusion, Jacobian matrices, Heating, Chemistry, Eigenvalues, Heat, Turbulence
Mengqiao Yang, Subhodeep Banerjee and Ramesh K. Agarwal
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039415
Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) in chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a recent technology that provides great advantage for gas-solid interaction and efficiency. In order to obtain a thorough understanding of this technology and to assess its effectiveness for industrial scale deployment, numerical simulations are conducted. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed with Dense Discrete Phase model (DDPM) to simulate the gas-solid interactions. CFD commercial software ANSYS Fluent is used for the simulations. Two bed materials of different particle density and diameter, namely the molochite and Fe 100, are used in studying the hydrodynamics and particle behavior in a fuel reactor corresponding to the experimental set up of Haider et al. at Cranfield University in U.K. Both the simulations show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data for both the static pressure and volume fraction at various heights above the gas inlet in the reactor. It is found that an appropriate drag law should be used in the simulation depending on the particle size and flow conditions in order to obtain accurate results. The simulations demonstrate the ability of CFD/DDPM to accurately capture the physics of CFB based CLC process at pilot scale which can be extended to industrial scale projects.
TOPICS: Combustion, Fuels, Transients (Dynamics), Flow simulation, Fluidized beds, Simulation, Computational fluid dynamics, Particulate matter, Computer simulation, Drag (Fluid dynamics), Physics, Density, Pressure, Flow (Dynamics), Hydrodynamics, Computer software, Particle size
Julian Jedrzejewski and Malgorzata Hanuszkiewicz-Drapala
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038117
The paper presents the possibilities of the use of a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor for energy purposes in the hydrogen and electricity production process. The system provides heat for a thermochemical sulfur-iodine cycle producing hydrogen and generates electricity. Its structure and electricity generation capacity are conditioned by the demand for heat and the levels of temperature required at the sulfur-iodine cycle individual stages. In the three structures under analysis, electricity is generated in a gas turbine system and steam systems (steam, low-boiling fluids). The impact of helium parameters in a two-stage compression system with interstage cooling on power efficiency of the analyzed structures of cogeneration systems and on total power efficiency of the systems is investigated assuming that both hydrogen and electricity are produced. Thermodynamic analyses are conducted using the EBSILON Professional program. The aim of the analyses is to determine the optimum structure of the system and parameters of the mediums in terms of power efficiency.
TOPICS: Heat, Cycles, Nuclear reactors, Sulfur, High temperature, Very high temperature reactors, Hydrogen, Energy efficiency, Steam, Helium, Electric power generation, Structural optimization, Boiling, Cogeneration systems, Gas turbines, Compression, Temperature, Cooling, Fluids, Manufacturing
Arild Saasen, Songxiong Ding, Per Amund Amundsen and Kristoffer Tellefsen
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4033304
Materials such as added clays, weight materials, drill solids and metalic wear products in the drilling fluid are known to distort the geomagnetic field at the location of the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool magnetometers that are used to measure the direction of well path. This distortion contributes to substantial errors in determination of azimuth while drilling deviated wells. These errors may result in missing the target of a long deviated 12 ¼” section in the range of 1-200m; representing a significant cost to be mitigated. The error becomes even more pronounced if drilling occurs in arctic regions close to the magnetic North Pole ( or South Pole). The effect on the magnetometer readings is obviously linked to the kinds and amounts of magnetic materials in the drilling fluid. The problem has recently been studied by laboratory experiments and analyses of downhole survey data. A series of experiments has been carried out to understand how some drilling fluid additives relate to the magnetic distortion. Experiments with free iron ions show that presence of iron ions does not contribute to magnetic distortion; while experiments with bentonite-based fluids show a strong effect of bentonite on magnetic shielding. Albeit earlier measurements showing a strong dependency of the content of organophilic clay, clean laboratory prepared oil-based drilling fluids show no increased shielding when adding organophilic hectorite clays. The anticipated difference between these two cases is outlined in the paper. When eroded steel from an offshore drilling site is added into the oil-based drilling fluid, it is found that these swarf and steel fines significantly increase the magnetic shielding of the drilling fluid. The paper outlines how the drilling direction may be distorted by the presence of these additives and contaminants and how this relates to the rheological properties of the drilling fluid.
TOPICS: Fluids, Drilling, Rheology, Errors, Iron, Magnetic shielding, Steel, Ions, Magnetometers, Poles (Building), Drills (Tools), Solids, Wells, Weight (Mass), Wear, Scrap metals, Underwater drilling, Magnetic materials, Arctic region

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