Accepted Manuscripts

Lei Zhang, Cheng Jing, Jing Liu and Khan Nasir
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038196
Due to the limited temperature resistance, the deep conformance control technology of using the conventional hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel is failure to enhance oil recovery in high temperature heterogeneous oil reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a gelant with high temperature resistance to meet the demands of increasing oil production and decreasing water cut in high temperature heterogeneous oil reservoirs. In this paper, a copolymer is firstly synthesized by the method of inverse emulsion polymerization with using 2-acrylamide-2-tetradecyl ethyl sulfonic acid, acrylamide, and acrylic acid. The developed copolymer has a highly branching skeleton and can resist temperature to 100 ?. And then a gelant with high temperature resistance and good shear resistance can be formed by mixing a certain proportion of the developed copolymer and polyethyleneimine. After the controllable gelation, a copolymer gel is formed and the formed gel can maintain the stable performance for a long time in the high temperature environment. Experimental results show that the developed gelant can be applied in the conformance control of high temperature heterogeneous oil reservoir.
TOPICS: Polymer colloids, High temperature, Copolymers, Hydrocarbon reservoirs, Temperature, Ethyl compounds, Control systems, Petroleum extraction, Shear (Mechanics), Emulsions, Failure, Polymerization, Water
Alberto Benato and Anna Stoppato
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038197
Renewable energy sources (RES), such as wind and solar, are quite capable to actively contribute to meet the today's energy demand. However, many of them have a time dependent nature that constitutes their major disadvantage. To overcome this drawback, an energy storage system needs to be set up. In this manner, the stored energy can be utilized in the absence of RES or under peak load conditions. High-temperature Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES) using packed bed constitutes an attractive solution but is characterized by high losses and irreversibilities. For this reason, in the present paper, a new plant scheme is presented and its mathematical model built up. In order to predict the packed bed behaviour, a 1D two phase model of the hot and cold storages has been included while the plant feasibility is evaluated using an energy and a cost analysis.
TOPICS: Storage, Wind, High temperature, Peak load, Energy storage, Solar energy, Renewable energy sources
Mahmoud Kamel, Salaheldin Elkatatny, Muhammad Mysorewala, Abdulaziz Al-Majed and Moustafa Elshafei
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038131
Deviated, horizontal and multilateral wells are drilled to increase the contact area between the well path and the reservoir and as a result, the well productivity will be increased. Directional Steering Systems (DSS) are used to control the direction in non-vertical wells. Rotary Steerable System (RSS) is the current state of art of directional steering systems. In this research, the problem of real time control of autonomous RSS with unknown formation rock strength was presented. The aims of this study are to develop an online control scheme for real time optimization of drilling parameters to (1) maximize rate of penetration, (2) minimize the deviation from the planned well bore trajectory, (3) reduce the stick-slip oscillations, (4) assess the degree of bit wear. Nonlinear model for the drilling operation was developed using energy balance equation, where rock specific energy is used to calculate the minimum power required for a given rate of penetration. A proposed mass spring system was used to represent the phenomena of stick-slip oscillation. The model parameters have been adaptively estimated at each control iteration to tackle any disturbances or variations in the formation properties. The bit wear is mathematically represented using Bourgoyne model. Detailed mathematical formulation and computer simulation were used for evaluation of the performance of the proposed technique based on real well field data. The obtained results showed excellent ability to accommodate the changes in the formation properties. In addition, the rates of bit wear and stick-slip oscillations have been optimized.
TOPICS: Wear, Drilling, Stick-slip, Oscillations, Steering systems, Rocks, Wells, Computer simulation, Reservoirs, Energy budget (Physics), Trajectories (Physics), Optimization, Real-time control, Springs
Julian Jedrzejewski and Malgorzata Hanuszkiewicz-Drapala
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038117
The paper presents the possibilities of the use of a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor for energy purposes in the hydrogen and electricity production process. The system provides heat for a thermochemical sulfur-iodine cycle producing hydrogen and generates electricity. Its structure and electricity generation capacity are conditioned by the demand for heat and the levels of temperature required at the sulfur-iodine cycle individual stages. In the three structures under analysis, electricity is generated in a gas turbine system and steam systems (steam, low-boiling fluids). The impact of helium parameters in a two-stage compression system with interstage cooling on power efficiency of the analyzed structures of cogeneration systems and on total power efficiency of the systems is investigated assuming that both hydrogen and electricity are produced. Thermodynamic analyses are conducted using the EBSILON Professional program. The aim of the analyses is to determine the optimum structure of the system and parameters of the mediums in terms of power efficiency.
TOPICS: Heat, Cycles, Nuclear reactors, Sulfur, High temperature, Very high temperature reactors, Hydrogen, Energy efficiency, Steam, Helium, Electric power generation, Structural optimization, Boiling, Cogeneration systems, Gas turbines, Compression, Temperature, Cooling, Fluids, Manufacturing
Dina Fawzy, Sherin Moussa and Nagwa Badr
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038119
A fast-growing worldwide interest is directed towards green energies. Due to the huge costs of wind farms establishment, the location for wind farms should be carefully determined to achieve the optimum return of investment. Consequently, researches have been conducted to investigate land suitability prior to wind plants development. The generated data from the sensors detecting a potential land can be very huge, fast in generation, heterogeneous, and incomplete, which become seriously difficult to process using traditionalapproaches. In this paper, we propose Trio-V Wind Analyzer that handles data volume, variety, and veracity to identify the most suitable location for wind energy development in any study area using a modified version of Multi-Criteria Evaluation. It utilizes Principle Component Analysis and our proposed DoubleReduction Optimum Apriori to analyze most of the environmental, physical, and economical criteria. In addition, Trio-V Wind Analyzer recommends the suitable turbines and proposes the adequate turbines' layout distribution, predicting the expected power generated based on the recommended turbine's specifications using a regression technique. Thus, Trio-V Wind Analyzer provides an integral system of land evaluation for potential investment in wind farms. Experiments indicate 80% and 95% average accuracy for land suitability degree and power prediction respectively with efficient performance.
TOPICS: Design, Wind, Wind farms, Turbines, Wind energy, Sensors
João Carlos von Hohendorff Filho and Denis José Schiozer
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038045
There are many ways to integrate reservoir and production system simulations to forecast production, in a single model (implicit) or in coupled models (explicit). Explicit coupling, a simple and flexible coupling method, has the advantage of using commonly available commercial software to integrate reservoir and production systems simulations. However, explicit coupling may produce large deviations as the Inflow Performance Relationship curve (IPR), which combines well pressure and production and injection rates, can only be evaluated or amended at the beginning of a time step. As the IPR curve changes during a time step, it may be necessary to correct unstable results for well pressure and rates. Using a previously proposed IPR correction method, numerical stability was improved, reducing deviations during advancing the time step. A formula was created to support the correction of Inflow Performance Relationship curve. The methodology was tested using cases with known responses for pressures and flow-rates, for a predetermined production strategy from the benchmark case UNISIM-I-D. Deviations were reduced to near zero when compared with uncoupled and decoupled methodologies to integrate reservoir with production system simulations.
TOPICS: Reservoirs, Simulation, Engineering simulation, Manufacturing systems, Inflow, Pressure, Flow (Dynamics), Numerical stability, Computer software
Si Le Van and Bo Hyun Chon
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038054
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas flooding has become attractive to consider and viable to deploy when gas supplies or gas recycled systems are available. In particular, the injection of CO2 is globally encouraged as it can improve oil production in mature fields and assist in reducing greenhouse carbon by permanently sequestrating CO2 (CCS) in reservoirs. As a part of numerical studies, this work proposed an advanced application of artificial neural network (ANN) to forecast the performance of a water-alternating-CO2 flooding process and manage the amount of injected CO2 effectively for a five spot well pattern scale in a combined CCS-EOR project. After training, three output targets, including oil recovery, net CO2 storage and cumulative gaseous CO2 production, were quantitatively simulated by three separate ANN models for a series of injection frame at 5, 15, 25 and 35 cycles. By integrating these models, technical relationships among parameters were comprehensively evaluated, the efficiencies of different injection schemes were then accurately estimated, in particular the effective use of CO2 for injection has also been quantitatively assessed which is at least beneficial for managing the injection process in terms of either oil production or storing carbon underground. Further, the optimal operating conditions were identified in various cases for both oil recovery and CO2 sequestration that substantially express the fully helpful support of the neural networks in controlling the efficiency of a CO2 flooding process.
TOPICS: Tertiary petroleum recovery, Artificial neural networks, Petroleum extraction, Carbon dioxide, Carbon capture and storage, Floods, Carbon, Cycles, Water, Reservoirs
Cheng Xu and Ryo Amano
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4037813
In centrifugal compressor impellers, the splitter blades are very common to use. In this study, a low flow single-stage centrifugal compressor with a vaneless diffuser was used to investigate the location effects of the impeller splitter between two main blades. It is demonstrated that the splitter location provided an opportunity to improve the compressor performance and reduce the operational cost. The splitter location optimizations were performed numerically, and the optimal splitter location was identified. A prototype was built for the impeller with optimal splitter location. The performance tests were performed, and test results are compared with numerical analysis. The studies indicated that splitter locations have impacts to the compressor stage performances. The optimization for the splitter location can enhance the centrifugal compressor performance. The studies showed that the traditional splitter located at the middle of the two main blades is not the optimal location for aerodynamic performance. The splitter location optimization provided the opportunity to improve the centrifugal compressor performance further.
TOPICS: Compressors, Blades, Impellers, Optimization, Flow (Dynamics), Engineering prototypes, Numerical analysis, Testing performance, Vaneless diffusers, Compressor impellers
Hui Jin, Bin Chen, Xiao Zhao and Changqing Cao
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4037814
Supercritical water gasification(SCWG) is an efficient and clean conversion of biomass due to the unique chemical and physical properties. Anthracene and furfural are the key intermediates in SCWG, and their microscopic reaction mechanism in supercritical water may provide information for reactor optimization and selection of optimal operating condition. Density functional theory (DFT) and Reactive empirical force fields (ReaxFF) were combined to investigate the molecular dynamics of catalytic gasification of anthracene and furfural. The simulation results showed that Cu and Ni obviously increased the production of H radicals, therefore the substance supercritical water gasification process. Ni catalyst decreased the production of H2 with the residence time of 500ps while significantly increased CO production and finally increased the syngas production. Ni catalyst was proved to decrease the free carbon production to prohibit the carbon deposition on the surface of active sites, meanwhile, Cu catalyst increase the production of free carbon.
TOPICS: Molecular dynamics, Biomass, Fuel gasification, Hydrogen production, Water, Catalysts, Carbon, Optimization, Syngas, Density functional theory, Simulation results
Marcin Szega and Piotr Zymelka
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4037369
The paper present the approach of thermo-economic analysis of centralized cold generation in trigeneration system integrated with steam-powered absorption chillers. The analysis was conducted for real back-pressure combined heat and power (CHP) unit BC-50 and single-effect absorption refrigerators using water and lithium bromide as the working fluids. It has been assumed that the heating medium supplied to the chiller generator is technological steam from the existing steam bleeding. Mathematical simulation models of cogeneration and trigeneration systems have been developed with the commercial program for power plant simulation EBSILON®Professional. System effects of heat and electricity cogeneration and cogeneration with additional cold production have been calculated. The effect of trigeneration has been assessed quantitatively by the coefficient of the increasing the cogeneration effects, which has been calculated as a fraction of ratio of chemical energy savings of fuels to the demand for heat by the consumers in the cases of trigeneration and cogeneration. The paper includes also analysis of economic effectiveness of a trigeneration system with absorption chillers for cold agent production. The results of economic calculations show that an acceptable payback period of approximately thirteen years for a CHP and absorption system may be achieved, which is equal to the half of assumed operating time of the system. The carry out sensitivity analysis shows that the most important impact on profitability is the selling price of cold and the purchase of fuel – hard coal.
TOPICS: Heat, Absorption, Combined heat and power, Economic analysis, Steam, Fuels, Pressure, Fluids, Chemical energy, Simulation, Coal, Power stations, Thermoeconomics, Water, Heating, Generators, Lithium, Profitability, Sensitivity analysis, Simulation models
Arild Saasen, Songxiong Ding, Per Amund Amundsen and Kristoffer Tellefsen
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4033304
Materials such as added clays, weight materials, drill solids and metalic wear products in the drilling fluid are known to distort the geomagnetic field at the location of the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool magnetometers that are used to measure the direction of well path. This distortion contributes to substantial errors in determination of azimuth while drilling deviated wells. These errors may result in missing the target of a long deviated 12 ¼” section in the range of 1-200m; representing a significant cost to be mitigated. The error becomes even more pronounced if drilling occurs in arctic regions close to the magnetic North Pole ( or South Pole). The effect on the magnetometer readings is obviously linked to the kinds and amounts of magnetic materials in the drilling fluid. The problem has recently been studied by laboratory experiments and analyses of downhole survey data. A series of experiments has been carried out to understand how some drilling fluid additives relate to the magnetic distortion. Experiments with free iron ions show that presence of iron ions does not contribute to magnetic distortion; while experiments with bentonite-based fluids show a strong effect of bentonite on magnetic shielding. Albeit earlier measurements showing a strong dependency of the content of organophilic clay, clean laboratory prepared oil-based drilling fluids show no increased shielding when adding organophilic hectorite clays. The anticipated difference between these two cases is outlined in the paper. When eroded steel from an offshore drilling site is added into the oil-based drilling fluid, it is found that these swarf and steel fines significantly increase the magnetic shielding of the drilling fluid. The paper outlines how the drilling direction may be distorted by the presence of these additives and contaminants and how this relates to the rheological properties of the drilling fluid.
TOPICS: Fluids, Drilling, Rheology, Errors, Iron, Magnetic shielding, Steel, Ions, Magnetometers, Poles (Building), Drills (Tools), Solids, Wells, Weight (Mass), Wear, Scrap metals, Underwater drilling, Magnetic materials, Arctic region

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