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research-article  
Pan-Sang Kang, Ji Yu Hwang and Jong-Se Lim
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041525
Wax deposition is an extremely common issue for flow assurance in oil fields. In the laminar flow condition, the effect of the flow rate on wax deposition is still unclear. In this study, a flow loop test was conducted by considering the depletion effect to investigate the flow effect on wax deposition in single-phase laminar flow. Measured data was compared with estimated data by using models (wax deposition model, hydrodynamic model, and heat transfer model). The data obtained from the models were matched with the measured data, thereby model parameters were tuned and wax deposit thickness along the pipeline was estimated with respect to flow rate. The study results indicate that wax deposit thickness decreases when the flow rate increases at the thickest spot. The volume of wax deposits increases when the flow rate increases. An increase in the flow rate increases the distance between the inlet and location of the thickest spot.
research-article  
Feng-Qi Yao and Hai-Hui Wang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041468
The present work explored the constitution of the calorific values of biomass fuels and the mechanism by which basic chemical compositions affect the fuel calorific data. For the first time, an energy conversion model was developed for the functional groups stored in biomass fuels by combustion. Validation of the model was performed by testing with various types of substances. By analyzing the effect of mass increase of individual chemical species on the amount of heat released by a fuel, it was confirmed that for ligno-cellulosic fuels, the species containing C-H, C-C and C=C bonds positively affect the fuel calorific values, whereas the species containing O-H, C-N, C-O, and C=O bonds have negative role in the increase of the fuel calorific values. A ratio parameter was then developed to quantitatively evaluate the potential of individual chemical bonds to contribute to the calorific values of biomass fuels, which well explained the existing techniques for treating biomass as fuels. The outcomes of this work serve as a theoretical basis for improving the efficiency in energy utilization of biomass fuels.
TOPICS: Fuels, Biomass, Theoretical analysis, Performance, Testing, Energy conversion, Heat, Combustion
research-article  
YunFei Yan, Ying Liu, Haojie Li, Weipeng Huang, Yanrong Chen, Lixian Li and Zhongqing Yang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041405
The hetero-/homogeneous steady combustion and the blow-off limit of methane-fueled catalytic micro-reactors have been investigated in different coupling factors of opposed counter-flow micro-combustor. This investigation mainly including the influence of inlet width L2, downstream length L1, inlet length L3 and the inlet height H on the methane-fueled catalytic combustion performance. The results show that the blow-off limit and the methane conversion rate improve with the increase of inlet width L2, as the inlet width varies from 1.0 mm to 0.1mm, the blow-off limit and methane conversion rate increased by 34% and 8.7%. The other geometric parameters of inlet width L1, inlet length L3 and inlet height H can influence on the blow-off limit and methane conversion rate effectively. With the increase of the L1 and L3, the blow-off limit and methane conversion rate increase. For example, from L1=4.0mm to L1=6.0mm, the blow-off limit increase from 3.5m/s to 4.1m/s and the methane conversion rate from 89.90% to 91.04%. However, with the increases of the H, the blow-off limit and methane conversion rate decreased by 2.89% and 9.30 % respectively. Besides, the increase of the length L1 is conducive to improve the blow-off limit and methane conversion rate though.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Combustion, Combustion chambers, Cavities, Methane
research-article  
Zhaoqi Fan, Daoyong (Tony) Yang, Di Chai and Xiaoli Li
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041406
A modified IES algorithm has been proposed and validated to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the IES algorithm with the PUNQ-S3 model. More specifically, a recursive approach is utilized to optimize the screening process of damping factor for improving the efficiency of the IES algorithm without compromising of history matching performance because an inappropriate damping factor potentially yields more iterations and significantly increased computational expenses. In addition, a normalization method is proposed to revamp the sensitivity matrix by minimizing the data heterogeneity associated with the model parameter matrix and production data matrix in updating processes of the IES algorithm. The coefficients of relative permeability and capillary pressure are included in the model parameter matrix that is to be iteratively estimated by assimilating the reference production data of five production wells. Three scenarios are designed to separately demonstrate the competence of the modified IES algorithm by comparing the objective function reduction, history-matched production profile convergence, model parameters variance reduction, and the relative permeability and capillary pressure of each scenario. It has been found from the PUNQ-S3 model that the computational expenses can be reduced by 50% while comparing the modified and original IES algorithm. Also, the enlarged objective function reduction, improved history-matched production profile, and decreased model parameter variance have been achieved by using the modified IES algorithm, resulting in a further reduced deviation between the reference and estimated relative permeability and capillary pressure in comparison to those obtained from the original IES algorithm.
TOPICS: Pressure, Permeability, Algorithms, Damping, Wells
research-article  
Lulu Sun, YanBo Zhang, Yue Wang and Qiqi Liu
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041407
After coal seam mining, the residual coal is soaked with the accumulated water in goaf and its spontaneous combustion characteristics was changed after air-dried. To study the reoxidation characteristics of soaked and air-dried coal, temperature programmed experiments were carried out and the cross point temperatures and index gases were studied. Results showed that the cross point temperature of raw coal (146.3 ?) was reduced to 137.1 ? after it was pre-oxidized at 90 ?. The cross point temperature of water-soaked and air-dried coal (96 h) was 122.5 ? and that of water-soaked, air-dried (96 h) and pre-oxidized (90 ?) coal was 111.5 ?. Little CO was produced in the initial slow oxidation phase, and C2H4 and C3H8 were not generated. In the rapid oxidation stage, different pretreatments affected the gas generation and the overall oxidative degree was consistent with the cross point temperature. The generation temperature and the concentration of C2H4 and C3H8 were decreased after the coal was water-soaked, air-dried and pre-oxidized. The high-energy chemicals and functional groups were studied to explain the physical experiment oxidation characteristics of different coals.
TOPICS: Coal, Temperature, Water, oxidation, Combustion, Gases, Mining
research-article  
Yiming Chen, Abhay Patil, Yi Chen, Changrui Bai, Yintao Wang and Gerald Morrison
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041408
Based on previous experiment result, an assumption is made to explain the abnormal head degradation in the first stage of an Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP): the bubbles' breaking up and coalescence effect with compressibility is the main reason of this phenomenon. To investigate the head degradation problem inside the ESP, a series of numerical simulations are performed on the first stage of the split vane impeller pump commonly employed for gas handling purpose. These 3D transient Eulerian multiphase simulations are divided into two groups: one group with the traditional fixed bubble size method, the other with the ANSYS Population Balancing Model (PBM) allowing the bubbles to break up and coalesce. The simulation result with the changing bubble size matches well with the experiment data, which supports the previous assumption. The flow field based on PBM simulation is visualized and analyzed. Also, the separation of phases is discovered with a large volume of gas accumulating at the suction side of the impeller trailing blades, which is also supported by experimental observation.
TOPICS: Pumps, Submersibles, Bubbles, Simulation, Impellers, Transients (Dynamics), Blades, Simulation results, Compressibility, Flow (Dynamics), Separation (Technology), Suction, Computer simulation
research-article  
Nan Wei, Changjun Li, CHAN LI, Hanyu Xie, Zhongwei Du, Qiushi Zhang and Fanhua Zeng
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041413
Forecasting of natural gas consumption has been essential for natural gas companies, customers and governments. However, accurately forecast natural gas consumption is difficult, due to the cyclical change of the consumption and the complexity of the factors that influence the consumption. In this work, we constructed a hybrid AI model to predict the short-term natural gas consumption and examine the effects of the factors in the consumption cycle. The proposed model combines factor selection algorithm (FSA), life genetic algorithm (LGA) and support vector regression (SVR), namely as FSA-LGA-SVR. FSA is used to select factors automatically for different period based on correlation analysis. The LGA optimized SVR is utilized to provide the prediction of time series data. To avoid being trapped in local minima, the hyper-parameters of SVR are determined by LGA, which is enhanced due to newly added "learning" and "death" operations in conventional genetic algorithm. Additionally, in order to examine the effects of the factors in different period, we utilized the recent data of three big cities in Greece and divided the data into 12 subseries. The prediction results demonstrated that the proposed model can give a better performance of short-term natural gas consumption forecasting compared to the estimation value of existing models. Particularly, the mean absolute range normalized errors of the proposed model in Athens, Thessaloniki and Larisa are 1.90%, 2.26% and 2.12%, respectively.
TOPICS: Selection algorithm, Support vector machines, Natural gas, Genetic algorithms, Cycles, Errors, Time series, Governments
research-article  
Esmail M. A. Mokheimer and Yousef N. Dabwan
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041409
This paper presents the results of a thermo-economic analysis of integrating solar tower (ST) with heat and power cogeneration plants that is progressively being installed to produce heat and electricity to operate absorption refrigeration systems or steam for industrial processes. The annual performance of an integrated solar-tower gas-turbine-cogeneration power plant (ISTGCPP) with different sizes of gas turbine and solar collector's area have been examined and presented. Thermoflex + PEACE software's were used to thermodynamically and economically assess different integration configurations of the ISTGCPP. The optimal integrated solar field size has been identified and the pertinent reduction in CO2 emissions due to integrating the ST system is estimated. For the considered cogeneration plant (that is required to produce 81.44 kg/s of steam at 394°C and 45.88 bars), the study revealed that (ISTGCPP) with gas turbine of electric power generation capacity less than 50 MWe capacities have more economic feasibility for integrating solar energy. The levelized electricity cost (LEC) for the (ISTGCPP) varied between $ 0.067 and $ 0.069 / kWh for gas turbine of electric power generation capacity less than 50 MWe. Moreover, the study demonstrated that (ISTGCPP) has more economic feasibility than a stand-alone solar tower power plant; the LEC for ISTGCPP is reduced by 50-60% relative to the stand-alone ST power plant. Moreover, a conceptual procedure to identify the optimal configuration of the ISTGCPP has been developed and presented in this article.
TOPICS: Heat, Solar energy, Cogeneration plants, Gas turbines, Power stations, Electric power generation, Steam, Thermoeconomics, Emissions, Refrigeration, Absorption, Turbines, Carbon dioxide, Combined heat and power
research-article  
Leng Tian, Bo Feng, Sixu Zheng, Daihong Gu, Xiaoxing Ren and Daoyong (Tony) Yang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041410
In this paper, a pragmatic and consistent framework has been developed and validated to accurately predict reservoir performance in tight sandstone reservoirs by coupling the dynamic capillary pressure with gas production models. Theoretically, the concept of pseudo-mobile water saturation which is defined as the water saturation between irreducible water saturation and cutoff water saturation is proposed to couple dynamic capillary pressure and stress-induced permeability to form an equation matrix that is solved by using the IMPES method. Compared with the conventional methods, the newly developed model predicts a lower cumulative gas production but a higher reservoir pressure and a higher flowing bottomhole pressure at the end of the stable period. Physically, a higher gas production rate induces a greater dynamic capillary pressure, while both cutoff water saturation and stress-induced permeability impose a similar impact on the dynamic capillary pressure, though the corresponding degrees are varied. Due to the dynamic capillary pressure, pseudo-mobile water saturation controlled by the displacement pressure drop also affects the gas production. The higher the gas production rate is, the greater the effect of dynamic capillary pressure on the cumulative gas production, formation pressure, and flowing bottomhole pressure will be. By taking the dynamic capillary pressure into account, it can be more accurate to predict the performance of a gas reservoir and the length of stable production period, allowing for making more reasonable development schemes and thus improving the gas recovery in a tight sandstone reservoir.
TOPICS: Pressure, Reservoirs, Performance evaluation, Water, Stress, Permeability, Displacement, Pressure drop
research-article  
Paramvir Singh, Sant Ram Chauhan, Varun Goel and Dr. Ashwani K. Gupta
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041411
This paper presents lubricating oil performance in a compression ignition engine fueled with a binary fuel blend of 70% aamla seed oil biodiesel and 30% eucalyptus oil on volume basis. This blended fuel was stable and congruent with engine-fuel system. Initially, the engine was operated with normal diesel fuel as per standard endurance test. The same endurance test was performed with the above binary biodiesel blended fuel in the engine under somewhat modified engine operational condition. The lubricating oil was examined at a specified interval to evaluate the impact of the fuel on lubricating oil properties. Quantification of various metal debris concentration was carried out using inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. After experimentation, the lubricating oil samples were analyzed using analytical ferrography that showed lower wear debris concentrations from binary biodiesel blend than diesel fuel operated engine. The better lubricating property of binary biodiesel blended fuel resulted in lower wear and improved performance of engine parts. Relatively low wear and concentrations of all metal wear were found in the lubricating oil with binary biodiesel blended fuel engine revealed better performance of engine with this fuel blend. No technical problem was encountered during the long term endurance tests with the binary biodiesel blended fuel under modified engine parameters.
TOPICS: Biofuel, Diesel engines, Lubricating oils, Fuels, Engines, Biodiesel, Wear, Metals, Diesel, Plasmas (Ionized gases), Emission spectroscopy
research-article  
Ziwei Bai, Ziyu Wang, Guangying Yu, Yongping Yang and Hameed Metghalchi
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041412
Biomass has been considered as a valuable alternative fuel recently. A fundamental property of biomass/air flame, laminar burning speed, is measured in this research. Experiments have been made in a cylindrical combustion vessel with two end windows. Central ignition has been used to start the combustion process. A high-speed CMOS camera capable of taking pictures of 40,000 frames per second has been used to study morphology of flame front. Flames are initially smooth and as pressure and flame radius increase cracks and cells appear on the flame surface. In this manuscript experimental results have only been reported for smooth flames. A multi-shell thermodynamic model to measure laminar burning speed of biomass/air mixture with varying CO2 concentrations (0%-60%), based on the pressure rise data collected from a cylindrical chamber during combustion, has been developed in this paper. Power law correlations, to predict burning speed of biomass/air mixtures, based on the measured burning speeds, has been developed for range of temperatures of 300-661 K, pressures of 0.5-6.9 atmospheres, equivalence ratios of 0.8-1.2 and CO2 concentration 0%-60%. Moreover, the measured laminar burning speeds have been compared with simulation results using a one-dimensional steady state laminar premixed flame program with GRI-Mech 3.0 mechanism and other available data from literatures. Comparison with existing data has been excellent.
TOPICS: Combustion, Biomass, Flames, Carbon dioxide, Pressure, Temperature, Fuels, Complementary metal oxide semiconductors, Fracture (Materials), Ignition, Shells, Simulation results, Steady state, Vessels
research-article  
William Becker, Michael Penev and Robert J. Braun
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041381
Power-to-gas to energy systems are of increasing interest for low carbon fuels production and as a low-cost grid-balancing solution for renewables penetration. However, such gas generation systems are typically focused on hydrogen production, which has compatibility issues with existing natural gas pipeline infrastructures. This study presents a power-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) plant design and a techno-economic analysis of its performance for producing SNG by reacting renewably generated hydrogen from low-temperature electrolysis with captured carbon dioxide. The study presents a "bulk" methanation process that is unique due to the high concentration of carbon oxides and hydrogen. Carbon dioxide, as the only carbon feedstock, has much different reaction characteristics than carbon monoxide. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of the methanation reaction are explored to design a system of multi-staged reactors for the conversion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to SNG. Heat recuperation from the methanation reaction is accomplished using organic Rankine cycle units to generate electricity. The product SNG has a Wobbe index of 47.5 MJ/m3 and the overall plant efficiency (H2/CO2 to SNG) is shown to be 78.1% LHV (83.2% HHV). The nominal production cost for SNG is estimated at 38.8 $/MMBTU (132 $/MWh) with 3 $/kg hydrogen and a 65% capacity factor. At U.S. DOE target hydrogen production costs (2.2 $/kg), SNG cost is estimated to be as low as 28.6 $/MMBtu (97.6 $/MWh or 1.46 $/kgSNG).
TOPICS: Natural gas, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen production, Renewable energy sources, Plant design, Natural gas distribution, Organic Rankine cycle, Heat, Fuels, Feedstock, Design, Energy / power systems, Low temperature, Electric power generation, Electrolysis
research-article  
Shrabanti Roy, Saeid Zare and Omid Askari
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041316
Laminar burning speed and ignition delay time behavior of iso-ocatne at the presence of two different biofuels, ethanol and 2,5 dimethyl furan (DMF) was studied in this work. Biofuels are considered as a better alternative source of fossil fuels. There is a potentiality that combustion characteristics of iso-octane can be improved using biofuels as an oxygenated additive. In this study three different blending ratios of 5%, 25% and 50% of ethanol/iso-octane and DMF/iso-octane were investigated. For laminar burning speed calculation equivalence ratio of 0.6-1.4 was considered. Ignition delay time was measured under temperature ranges from 650 K to 1100 K. Two different mechanisms were considered in numerical calculation. These mechanisms were validated by comparing the results of pure fuels with wide range of experimental and numerical data. The characteristic change of iso-ocatne with the presence of additives was observed by comparing the results with pure fuel. Significant change was observed on behavior of iso-octane at 50% blending ratio. A comparison was also done on the effect of two different additives. It has found that addition of DMF brings significant changes on iso-octane characteristics comparing to ethanol.
TOPICS: Combustion, Gasoline, Biofuel, Ethanol, Fuels, Ignition delay, Temperature, Fossil fuels
research-article  
Zihao Yang, Yanping Zhang and Wei Gao
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041286
The control quality of an once-through boiler's water-fuel ratio and main-steam temperature are heavily influenced by the control quality of the once-through boiler's intermediate point enthalpy (IPE), and it is also related to the economic and stable operation of the a once-through boiler. In order to control the IPE in a better way and to increase boiler efficiency, an improved model of intermediate point enthalpy control system was built in this paper, MATLAB/Simulink is used to build the IPE control system model based on a 600 MW supercritical unit, and the mechanism model of the control object is built in the same time. The feedforward of the feed-water temperature is brought to this model to increase the control rate. The control method of amendments to the amount of coal and the control method of amendments to the amount of feed-water are combined by the means of fuzzy control to solve the problem of the contradiction of the responding speed of the IPE and the separation interface's stability of the steam-water separator. The simulation results show that the improved control method has better control effect and higher boiler efficiency was obtained too.
TOPICS: Control systems, Boilers, Enthalpy, Steam, Water, Feedwater, Temperature, Separation (Technology), Fuels, Fuzzy control, Coal, Stability, Feedforward control, Matlab, Simulation results
research-article  
Shixi Ma, Dengji Zhou, Huisheng Zhang, Shilie Weng and Tiemin Shao
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041287
Energy hubs is an integrated system which is capable of transporting, transforming and storing several types of energy. A number of hubs can be combined as a network and achieve higher efficiency by exchanging information and energy with each other. A decision-making framework for optimal integration of independent small scale distributed energy systems and traditional large scale CHP power plants is presented, and an energy supply system with renewable energy resources in Shanghai is cited as a case study. A performance simulation model of this energy network is proposed based on energy hub concept and energy flow between its elements. Furthermore, a novel optimization method named Whales Optimization Algorithm (WOA) is presented for 24-hour operational optimization. Case study are undertaken on a 7-node energy system, including 4 energy hubs and 3 load hubs. The results of case study show that the proposed model and optimization method can improve energy utilization efficiency and reduce system operating costs, even under a system contingency condition.
TOPICS: Modeling, Optimization, Distributed power generation, Optimization algorithms, Renewable energy sources, Simulation models, Integrated systems, Cogeneration plants, Decision making, Flow (Dynamics), Stress
Review Article  
Guangying Yu, Fatemeh Hadi and Hameed Metghalchi
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041288
The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE), a model order reduction method, assumes that the non-equilibrium states of a system can be described by a sequence of constrained-equilibrium kinetically controlled state by relatively a small number of constraints within acceptable accuracies. The full chemical composition at each constrained-equilibrium state is obtained by maximizing (or minimizing) the appropriate thermodynamic quantities, e.g. entropy (or Gibbs functions) subject to the instantaneous values of the constraints. Regardless of the nature of the kinetic constraints, RCCE always guarantees correct final equilibrium state. Ignition delay times measured in shock tube experiments with low initial temperatures are significantly shorter than the values obtained by constant volume models. Low initial temperatures and thus longer shock tube test times cause non-ideal heat transfer and fluid flow effects such as boundary layer growth and shock wave attenuation to gradually increase the pressure (and simultaneously increase the temperature) before ignition. To account for these effects, in this paper, the RCCE prescribed enthalpy and pressure (prescribed h/p) model has been further developed and has been applied to methane shock tube ignition delay time simulation using GRI-Mech 3.0. Excellent agreement between RCCE predictions and shock tube experimental data was achieved.
TOPICS: Equilibrium (Physics), Simulation, Shock tubes, Ignition delay, Temperature, Pressure, Fluid dynamics, Heat transfer, Shock waves, Boundary layers, Enthalpy, Ignition, Methane, Entropy
research-article  
Guangying Yu, Hameed Metghalchi, Omid Askari and Ziyu Wang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041289
The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE), a model order reduction method, has been further developed to simulate the combustion of propane/oxygen mixture diluted with nitrogen or argon. The RCCE method assumes that the non-equilibrium states of a system can be described by a sequence of constrained-equilibrium states subject to a small number of constraints. The developed new RCCE approach is applied to the oxidation of propane in a constant volume, constant internal energy system over a wide range of initial temperatures and pressures. The USC-Mech II (109 species and 781 reactions, without nitrogen chemistry) is chosen as chemical kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation for both Detailed Kinetic Model (DKM) and RCCE method. The derivation for constraints of propane/oxygen mixture starts from the eight universal constraints for carbon-fuel oxidation. The universal constraints are the elements (C, H, O), number of moles, free valence, free oxygen, fuel and fuel radicals. The full set of constraints contains 8 universal constraints and 7 additional constraints. The results of RCCE method are compared with the results of detailed kinetic model to verify the effectiveness of constraints and the efficiency of RCCE. Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium results show good agreement with DKM results under different initial temperature and pressures and RCCE also reduces at least 60% CPU time. Further validation is made by comparing to experimental data, RCCE shows good agreement with shock tube experimental data.
TOPICS: Simulation, Equilibrium (Physics), Combustion, Nitrogen, Oxygen, oxidation, Fuels, Temperature, Shock tubes, Internal energy (Physics), Carbon, Chemistry
research-article  
Xueying Wang, Hongjian Ni, Ruihe Wang, Lei Zhang and Peng Wang
J. Energy Resour. Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4041155
Axial excitation tools have the ability to improve slide-drilling efficiency by reducing the friction between the drillstring and the wellbore wall. However, drag-reduction effects are not always satisfactory, and excessive vibration may cause failures of downhole tools in some cases. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed to simulate the vibration responses of a drillstring. In the model, velocity-dependent friction is adopted to calculate the friction-reduction effect. The effect of drillstring joints on the weight on bit was first investigated. The simulation results indicate that the joints intensify the stick-slip motion of the drillstring system. The effect of the location of an axial excitation tool was then studied. The results show that it is better to place an axial excitation tool near the drill bit rather than near the rear of a build section. Because the frictional drag acting on the lower portion of the drillstring dominates the axial stick-slip motion of a drill bit. Finally, the resonance responses were examined in terms of accelerations of the drillstring system. The results show that resonance moderately increases the accelerations of a long horizontal drillstring system in a heavy-damping environment but that the growth of the exciting force can profoundly increase the accelerations.
TOPICS: Drilling, Drag reduction, Excitation, Drill strings, Friction, Resonance, Bits (Tools), Vibration, Stick-slip, Damping, Failure, Simulation results, Weight (Mass), Drag (Fluid dynamics)

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