Agglomeration and Fouling in Petroleum Coke-Fired FBC Boilers

[+] Author and Article Information
E. J. Anthony, F. Preto, L. Jia

CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Drive, Nepean, Ontario, Canada, K1A 1M1

J. V. Iribarne

University of Toronto, 60 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A7

J. Energy Resour. Technol 120(4), 285-292 (Dec 01, 1998) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2795049 History: Received December 13, 1996; Revised June 06, 1998; Online November 06, 2007


Experiments have been done subjecting ashes from industrial-scale FBC boilers to sulphating conditions in an oven for up to 105 days. These show that sulphation by itself causes agglomeration in the virtual absence of V, K, and Na, the elements normally associated with ash softening and classical fouling. In addition, it has been demonstrated that sulphation goes to completion over long periods of time and, at a specific level which differs from one ash to another, results in agglomeration. These experiments have also shown that there is a size range (75–300 μm) in which the agglomeration is worst, and particles that are smaller or larger either do not agglomerate or agglomerate more weakly. Added “inert” coal-derived ash decreases or prevents the agglomeration. However, this ash does not appear to chemically combine with the sulphate, but acts by mechanically separating the sulphating particles. Finally, if alkali metals are present they can cause agglomeration at levels lower than those at which either the alkalis or sulphation separately cause agglomeration, i.e., they operate synergistically to cause fouling. Current work is being directed at examining these phenomena at higher temperatures (900°C and above).

Copyright © 1998 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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