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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Trade-Off Between N2, NO, and N2O Under Fluidized Bed Combustor Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Wartha, F. Winter, H. Hofbauer

Institute of Chemical Engineering, Fuel Technology and Environmental Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/159, A-1060 Vienna, Austria

J. Energy Resour. Technol 122(2), 94-100 (Mar 31, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483169 History: Received August 16, 1999; Revised March 31, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

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Winter, F., Wartha, C., Löffler, G., and Hofbauer, H., 1996, “The NO and N2O Formation Mechanism during Devolatilization and Char Combustion under Fluidized Bed Conditions,” Proc., 26th Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 2 , pp. 3325–3334.
Ashman, P. J., Haynes, B. S., Buckley, A. N., and Nelson, P. F., 1998, “The Fate of Char-Nitrogen in Low Temperature Oxidation,” Proc., 27th Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 2 , pp. 3069–3075.
Srinivasan,  R. A., Sriramulu,  S., Kulasekaran,  S., and Agarwal,  P. K., 1998, “Mathematical Modeling of Fluidized Bed Combustion—2: Combustion of Gases,” Fuel, 77, pp. 1033–1049.
Hori, M., Matsunaga, N., Malte, P. C., and Marinov, N. M., 1992, “The Effect of Low-Concentration Fuels on the Conversion of Nitric Oxide to Nitrogen Dioxide,” Proc., 25th Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 909–916.
Hulgaard, T., 1991, “Nitrous Oxide from Combustion,” Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
Boavida,  D. H., Lobo,  L. S., Gulyurtlu,  I. K. and Cabrita,  I. A., 1997, “The Relative Importance of the Contribution of Volatile to the Formation of NO and N2O During the Combustion of Coal in a FBC,” Proc., 14th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, ASME, New York, NY, 2, pp. 977–982.
Wartha, C., 1998, “An Experimental Study on Fuel-nitrogen Conversion to NO and N2O and on Carbon Conversion under Fluidized Bed Conditions,” Ph.D. thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
Kristensen,  P. G., Glarborg,  P., and Dam-Johansen,  K., 1996, “Nitrogen Chemistry During Burnout in Fuel-Staged Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 107, pp. 211–222.
Hayhurst,  A. N., and Lawrence,  A. D., 1996, “The Amounts of NOx and N2O Formed in a Fluidized Bed Combustor during the Burning of Coal Volatiles and also of Char,” Combust. Flame, 105, pp. 341–357.
Hayhurst,  A. N., and Lawrence,  A. D., 1996, “The Effect of Solid CaO on the Production of NOx and N2O in Fluidized Bed Combustors: Studies using Pyridine as a Prototypical Nitrogenous Fuel,” Combust. Flame, 105, pp. 511–527.
Winter,  F., Wartha,  C., and Hofbauer,  H., 1997, “The Relative Importance of Radicals on the N2O and NO Formation and Destruction Paths in a Quartz CFBC,” Proc., 14th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, ASME, New York, NY, 2, pp. 1131–1137.
Bendtsen, A. B., Glarborg, P., Dam-Johansen, K., Kristensen, P. G., and Karll, B., 1998, “NOx Sensitized Oxidation of Methane, Experiments and Modeling,” poster presented at 27th Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Formation rate unit (FRU): 1,2[[ellipsis]]inlet of fluidizing gas, 3[[ellipsis]]mass flow controllers, 4[[ellipsis]]display for the mass-flows, 5[[ellipsis]]preheating zone, 6[[ellipsis]]heating shells, 7[[ellipsis]]thermocouple, 8[[ellipsis]]to the chimney, 9[[ellipsis]]heated filter, 10[[ellipsis]]heated sample lines, 11[[ellipsis]]heated pump, 12[[ellipsis]]heated gas cell, 13[[ellipsis]]FTIR spectrometer, 14,15[[ellipsis]]fuel inlet, 16[[ellipsis]]flask for iodine addition in a water-bath, 17,18[[ellipsis]]inlet of reaction gas (NH3,, HCN, NO), 19[[ellipsis]]inlet of combustible gas (CH4)
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Temperature dependence of NH3 oxidation and NO formation from NH3 with and without CH4. The first diagram shows the conversion to CO, CO2 during CH4 injection and the calculated conversion of NH3 to N2 (N2 is the difference between NH3,in and the sum of NOout,NO2,out,N2Oout,HCNout, and NH3,out) with (dashed line) and without CH4. The second diagram shows the conversion of NH3 to NO (NH3,in: 200 ppm, CH4,in: 8000 ppm, pO2: 10 kPa). NO2 has been detected in small amounts between 700 and 800°C, but has been omitted in the figure.
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature dependence of HCN oxidation and NO, N2O formation with and without CH4. The first diagram shows the conversion to CO, CO2 during CH4 injection and the calculated conversion of HCN to N2 (N2 is the difference between HCNin and the sum of NOout,NO2,out,N2Oout,HCNout, and NH3,out) with (dashed line) and without CH4. The second diagram shows the conversion of HCN to NO, NO2, and N2O(HCNin: 180 ppm, CH4,in: 8000 ppm, pO2: 10 kPa).
Grahic Jump Location
Homogeneous gas phase reaction tests. HCN oxidation under fluidized bed combustion conditions (Tb: 850°C, pO2: 10 kPa) without CH4 and with CH4 combustion. Total N is the sum of NO, N2O, HCN, NH3.
Grahic Jump Location
Homogeneous gas phase reaction tests performed in the FRU. NO and N2O formation from HCN and NO under fluidized bed combustion conditions (Tb: 850°C, pO2: 10 kPa). Total-N is the sum of NO, N2O, HCN, NH3.
Grahic Jump Location
NO decomposition without and with CH4. The NO addition was 200 ppm, the CH4 addition 8000 ppm (NOin: 200 ppm, CH4,in: 8000 ppm, pO2: 10 kPa).
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature dependence of the HCN/NO — system with and without CH4. The first diagram shows the conversion of C-species when CH4 is added. (CH4,in: 8000 ppm, pO2: 10 kPa), total-Nin=HCNin+NOin.
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature dependence of the NH3/NO-system with and without CH4. The first diagram shows the conversion of C-species when CH4 (8000 ppm) is added. (pO2: 10 kPa, vL: 0.68 m/s), total-Nin=NH3,in+NOin.
Grahic Jump Location
Test of N2O decomposition without and with CH4(N2Oin: 200 ppm, CH4,in: 8000 ppm, pO2: 10 kPa)
Grahic Jump Location
Fuel-N conversion versus temperature of different fuels (pO2: 10 kPa, vL: 0.68 m/s). Total N is the sum of NO, N2O, HCN, NH3.

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