Mapping of Permeability Damage Around Perforation Tunnels

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Ozgen Karacan, Abraham S. Grader, Phillip M. Halleck

Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering Department, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

J. Energy Resour. Technol 123(3), 205-213 (May 10, 2001) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1386389 History: Received March 28, 2000; Revised May 10, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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Schematic of perforation setup (Test A pressure conditions are shown)
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Horizontal section of Berea core–(a) 750 psi; (b) 350 psi and Torrey Buff core; (c) before perforating
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Horizontal sections of the Berea core–(a) Test A and the Torrey Buff core; (b) after perforating
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Flow impedance of tested cores before and after perforating
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Schematics of CFE increase in Berea (350-psi, Test B)) sandstone—(a) restricted flow lines before perforating; (b) by-passed layer due to presence of perforation
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Fluid movement in Berea core—(a) perforated with 350-psi underbalance; (b) a typical permeability profile obtained at 2.8 cm away from entrance. Images are from locations 1 cm apart and the first one is 0.8 cm from entrance.
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Permeability versus distance from entrance hole and from tunnel wall (Berea-350 psi test)
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Permeability reduction (k/k0) versus distance from entrance and distance from the wall (Berea-350 psi Test)
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Fluid movement in Berea core—(a) perforated with 750-psi underbalance: (b) a typical permeability profile obtained at 3.4 cm away from entrance
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Normalized permeabilities of Berea cores at 2.8 cm (Berea-350) and 3.4 cm (Berea-750) away from entrance
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Typical porosity profiles obtained in Berea perforations (a) Berea-350 psi test (2.8 cm from entrance); (b) Berea-750 psi test (3.4 cm from entrance)). Although there is almost no change in porosity (compacted zone) in both cases, there is a high-porosity region very near the tunnel (see text for discussion).
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(a) 440 min-474 min; (b) 10604 min-10638 min. Subtracted cross and constructed horizontal section images showing advance of the viscous fluid in the Torrey Buff perforation.
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Representation of the flow system and the volume covered by the front between two successive scans
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An example image and the definition of steps in processing. Step 1: Isolating only the CT numbers that defines the core section (numerically cutting) of the image matrix to eliminate unnecessary data. Step 2: Smoothing the image and contouring the CT numbers, which give 50 percent mixture of the low and high-viscosity oil-saturated zone (front CT number). Step 3: Masking and counting the number of pixels that fall in the region defined by the CT number in the previous step and calculating the radius of the equivalent circle by using the size of the pixels (front position).
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An example graph showing how to obtain the data for each time step for permeability calculation
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Schematic representation of data used in Eq. (4)




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