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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Application of Distributed Sensor Arrays for Monitoring Multiphase Processes

[+] Author and Article Information
Artur J. Jaworski

School of Engineering, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK

Tomasz Dyakowski, Graham A. Davies

Department of Chemical Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK

J. Energy Resour. Technol 125(4), 258-265 (Nov 18, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1626133 History: Received April 01, 2001; Revised July 01, 2003; Online November 18, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Keska,  J. K., Smith,  M. D., and Williams,  B. E., 1999, “Comparison Study of a Cluster of Four Dynamic Flow Pattern Discrimination Techniques for Multi-Phase Flow,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 10(2), pp. 65–77.
Thorn,  R., Johansen,  G. A., and Hammer,  E. A., 1997, “Recent Developments in Three-Phase Flow Measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 8, pp. 691–701.
Tuss, B., Perry, D., and Shoup, G., 1996 Field Tests of the High Gas Volume Fraction Multiphase Meter, Proc. SPE Conf., vol. π, 213–220, 6–9 October, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Abouelwafa,  M. S. A., and Kendall,  E. J. M., 1980, “The Use of Capacitance Sensors for Phase Percentage Determination in Multiphase Pipelines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., IM-29, pp. 24–27.
Williams, R. A., and Beck, M. S., 1995, Process Tomography: Principles, Techniques and Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
Plaskowski, A., Beck, M. S., Thorn, R., and Dyakowski, T., 1995, Imaging Industrial Flows—Applications of Electrical Process Tomography, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol.
Rowley,  M. E., and Davies,  G. A., 1988, “The Design of Plate Separators for the Separation of Oil-Water Dispersions,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 66, pp. 313–322.
Davies, G. A., Nilsen, F. P., and Gramme, P. E., 1996, “The Formation of Stable Dispersions of Crude Oil and Produced Water: The Influence of Oil Type, Wax and Asphaltene Content,” Proceedings of SPE Conference, vol. π, pp. 163–171, 6–9 October, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Ming, Y., Stewart, A. C., and Davies, G. A., 1996, “Interactions Between Chemical Additives and Their Effects on Emulsion Separation,” Proceedings of SPE Conference, vol. π, pp. 453–463, 6–9 October, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Miranda,  J. G., 1977, “Designing Parallel-Plates Separators,” Chemical Engineering, 84(3), pp. 105–107.
Russel,  S. A., Robertson,  D. G., Lee,  J. H., and Ogunnaike,  B. A., 1998, “Control of Product Quality for Batch Nylon 6,6 Autoclaves,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 53(21), pp. 3685–3702.
Dyakowski,  T., York,  T., Mikos,  M., Vlaev,  D., Mann,  R., Follows,  G., Boxman,  A., and Wilson,  M., 2000, “Imaging Nylon Polymerisation Processes by Applying Electrical Tomography,” Chem. Eng. J., 77(1–2), pp. 105–109.
Gerngross,  T. U., and Slater,  S. C., 2000, “How Green Are Green Plastics?” Sci. Am., August , pp. 37–41.
Jaworski,  A. J., Dyakowski,  T., and Davies,  G. A., 1999, “A Capacitance Probe for Interface Detection in Oil and Gas Extraction Plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 10, pp. L15–L20.
Jaworski, A. J., Dyakowski, T., and Davies, G. A., 1998, “Application of Capacitance Sensors for Monitoring Oil-Water Separation Processes,” Proceedings of ASME, HTD, 361-5 , pp. 429–437.
Yang,  W. Q., 1996, “Hardware Design of Electrical Capacitance Tomography Systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 7, pp. 225–232.

Figures

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Transparent oil-water separator (seen with capacitance meter inside a flame proof box)
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Details of the Pilot Plant separator layout—dimensions in millimetres
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(a) Schematic of the plates with embedded capacitance sensors, (b) Orientation of phases in a single channel
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PPI viewed from the separator downstream end. Two plates in the center are embedded with sensors.
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Results of static tests for three phase configurations: (a) air/water, (b) air/oil/water, (c) air/oil/emulsion/water
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Separation of phases as seen on the control PC
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Progress of separation as a function of the total flow rate and the oil-water interface position: (a) total flow 60 l/min, interface 15 cm below weir, (b) total flow 120 l/min, interface 15 cm below weir, (c) total flow 160 l/min, interface 15 cm below weir, (d) total flow 120 l/min, interface 7.5 cm below weir, (e) total flow 120 l/min, interface 22.5 cm below weir. Mixture composition: 25% oil and 75% water.
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Left: schematic of the ceramic sleeve design allowing suspension at various vertical positions. Right: ceramic sleeve (120 mm in diameter) with 16 electrodes.
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Changes in conductance during the nylon polymerization process
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Tomographic images corresponding to the pressure reduction stage of the polymerization process

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