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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Low-Liquid Loading Multiphase Flow in Natural Gas Pipelines

[+] Author and Article Information
Luis F. Ayala

The Pennsylvania State University, 230A Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802-5001

Michael A. Adewumi

The Pennsylvania State University, 202 Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802-5000

J. Energy Resour. Technol 125(4), 284-293 (Nov 18, 2003) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1616584 History: Received July 01, 2002; Revised June 01, 2003; Online November 18, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Coulter,  D. M., 1979, “New Equation Accurately Predicts Flowing Gas Temperature,” Pipeline Industry, 50(5), pp. 71–73.
Vincent,  P. A., and Adewumi,  M. A., 1990, “Engineering Design of Gas-Condensate Pipelines With a Compositional Hydrodynamic Model,” SPEPE, 5(4), pp. 381–386.
Ayala, L. F., 2001, “A Unified Two-Fluid Model for Multiphase Flow in Natural Gas Pipelines,” MS Thesis, Pennsylvania State U., University Park.
Adewumi,  M. A., and Mucharam,  L., 1990, “Compositional Modeling of Gas/Gas-Condensate Dispersed Flow in Gas Pipelines,” SPEPE, 5(1), pp. 85–90.
Chen,  N. H., 1979, “An Explicit Equation for Friction Factor in Pipe,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 18(3), pp. 296–297.
Taitel,  Y., and Dukler,  A. E., 1976, “A Model for Predicting Flow Regime Transitions in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Gas Liquid Flow,” AIChE J., 22(1), pp. 47–55.
Chen,  X., Cai,  X., and Brill,  J. P., 1997, “Gas-Liquid Stratified Wavy Flow in Horizontal Pipelines,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 119(4), pp. 209–216.
Grolman,  E., and Fortuin,  J. M. H., 1997, “Gas-Liquid Flow in Slightly Inclined Pipes,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 52(24), pp. 4461–4471.
Ishii,  M., and Mishima,  K., 1989, “Droplet Entrainment Correlation in Annular Two-Phase Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 32(10), pp. 1835–1846.
Wallis, G. B., 1969, “One-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Hinze,  J., 1955, “Fundamentals of the Hydrodynamic Mechanism of Splitting in Dispersion Processes,” AIChE J., 1(3), pp. 289–295.
Brauner,  N., 2001, “The Prediction of Dispersed Flows Boundaries in Liquid-Liquid and Gas-Liquid Systems,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 27, pp. 885–910.
Barnea,  D., 1987, “A Unified Model for Predicting Flow-Pattern Transitions for the Whole Range of Pipe Inclinations,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 13(1), pp. 1–12.
Baker,  A., Nielsen,  K., and Gabb,  A., 1988, “Pressure Loss, Liquid Holdup Calculations Developed,” Oil & Gas J., 86(11), pp. 55–69.
Meng,  W., Chen,  X. T., Kouba,  G. E., Sarica,  C., and Brill,  J. P., 2001, “Experimental Study of Low Liquid Loading Gas-Liquid Flow in Near-Horizontal Pipes,” SPE Prod. Facil., 16(4), p. 240.
Cliff, R., Grace, J. R., and Weber, M. E., 1978, “Bubbles, Drops, and Particles,” Academic Press, New York.
Peng,  D., and Robinson,  D. B., 1976, “A New Two-Constant Equation of State,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 15(1), pp. 59–64.
Lorentz,  J., Bray,  B., and Clark,  C., 1964, “Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids From Their Composition,” JPT, Trans. AIME, , 231, pp. 1171–1176.
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Mucharam, L., 1990, “One-Dimensional Compositional Modeling of Gas and Condensate Flow in Pipelines,” PhD dissertation, Pennsylvania State U., University Park.
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Figures

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Uniqueness of simultaneous flow of gas/condensate
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Flow patterns in low-liquid loadings near-horizontal pipelines
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Stratified smooth idealized flow structure
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Wavy stratified idealized flow structure (Double circle model, Chen et al. 7)
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Annular-Mist idealized flow structure
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Idealized dispersed liquid flow structure
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Pressure and temperature profile (using 4EF)
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Material balance check (using 4EF)
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Pressure and temperature profile (using modified 4EF or 5EF)
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Material balance check (using modified 4EF or 5EF)
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Pressure and Temperature Profile for the Horizontal Case
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Operational Curve (P-T trace) and Gas Phase Envelope
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Velocity Profiles for the Horizontal Case
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Liquid Holdup Profile for the Horizontal Case
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Density profiles for the horizontal case
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Force Behavior for the horizontal case
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Pressure and Temperature Profile—Undulating case
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Holdup Profile—Undulating case
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Cumulative integration of the liquid holdup

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