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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Calculating Benzene Concentration Emitted During Tanker Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Takahiro Majima

Environment and Energy Department, National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004, Japan

Hiroshi Yamanouchi

Environment and Energy Department, National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004, Japan

Katsuji Yamaguchi

Environment and Energy Department, National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004, Japan

J. Energy Resour. Technol 126(1), 6-12 (May 04, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1649247 History: Received March 01, 2002; Revised October 01, 2003; Online May 04, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

U.S. EPA, 1998, “Carcinogenic Effects of Benzene: An Update,” EPA/600/P-97/001F.
American Petroleum Institute, 1959, “Evaporation Loss from Tank Cars, Tank Trucks and Marine Vessels,” API Bull. 2514.
American Petroleum Institute, 1981, “Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Vessels Transfer Operations,” 2nd Edition API Publication 2514A.
American Petroleum Institute, 1992, “Impact Assessment of New Data on the Validity of American Petroleum Institute Marine Transfer Operation Emission Factors,” API Publication 2524.
Yoshizawa, A., Murakami, S., Kobayashi, T., Taniguchi, N., et al., 1995 “Analysis of Turbulent Flows,” University of Tokyo Press, pp. 26 in Japanese
Crank, J., 1955, “The Mathematics of Diffusion,” Oxford at the Clarendon Press, pp. 147-148.
Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Poling, B. E., 1987, The Properties of Gases & Liquids, fourth edition, McGraw-Hill, pp. 208.
Cussler, E. L., 1997, “Diffusion, Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems,” second edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp. 63, 104
Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E., and Lightfoot, E. N., 1960, “Transport Phenomena,” John Wiley & Sons, New York City, pp. 510.
Majima, T., Yamaguchi, K., Yamanouchi, H., Fujii, S., and Sakamoto, S., 2000, “Experiment Using Scale Model of Cargo Tank to Estimate the Concentration of Benzene Gas Emitted from Chemical Tanker During Loading Operation,” proceedings, 5th International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment, SPE paper 61504.

Figures

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499 Gross Tons Chemical Tanker
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Schematic of Diffusion in Cargo Tank
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Experimental Equipment, (a) Schematic Flow Diagram, (b) 1/10 Scale Model of Cargo Tank
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Results of “Circulation Method”, Concentration Profile in the Vertical Direction (a) S=11 mm, (b) S=6 mm
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Results of Trial and Error Process for c*, Concentration Profile in the Vertical Direction (a) S=11 mm, (b) S=6 mm
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Results of “Loading Method”, Surface Level versus Emission Concentration, (a) QL=3.2 L/min, (b) QL=12 L/min
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Calculation Chart for Coefficient ζ (a) Relationship between ζ and Surface Level, S (b) Reynolds Number and Gradient of ζ, when S/DT>0.55
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Sampling Position for Onboard Measurement
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Comparison of the Emission Concentration between Model and Experimental Data

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