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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Influence of Fluid Viscosity on the Hydraulic Fracturing Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Tsuyoshi Ishida

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, 755-8611 Japan

Qu Chen

Oyo Corporation, Miyahara-cho 1-66-2, Omiya, 330-0038 Japan

Yoshiaki Mizuta

Department of Civil Engineering, Sojo University, Ikeda, Kumamoto, 860-0082 Japan

Jean-Claude Roegiers

Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019-1014

J. Energy Resour. Technol 126(3), 190-200 (Oct 19, 2004) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1791651 History: Received November 20, 2002; Revised February 25, 2004; Online October 19, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Specimen, loading condition, positions of AE sensors, and coordinate system
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Packer and urethane sleeve inserted into the boreholes. (unit: cm)
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AE monitoring system. (a) Recording system. (b) Reproducing system.
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Borehole pressure and AE rate vs. elapsed time. (a) Water injection. (b) Oil injection. (c) Pressurization via the urethane sleeve. Nos. 1, 2 and 3 in each figure indicate recorded time of AE events whose fault plane solutions are shown in Figs. 15, 16 and 17.
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Location of AE sources in water injection. Figures (a), (b) and (c) show projections on XY, XZ and YZ planes, respectively. Broken lines indicate position of borehole.
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Location of AE sources in oil injection
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Location of AE sources in pressurization via the urethane sleeve
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Sketches of visible cracks in water injection shown on unfolded planes. Upper figures, (a), show cracks observed on the surfaces of the specimens. Broken-line circles indicate the positions of cores drilled for inspection of cracks in the specimens. Lower figures, (b), show cracks observed on the surfaces of these extracted cores.
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Sketches of visible cracks in oil injection
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Sketches of visible cracks in pressurization via the urethane sleeve
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Time-space distributions of AE hypocenters in water injection. Three figures (a), (b) and (c) respectively show movements of AE hypocenters in X-, Y- and Z-directions with respect to elapsed time. The figures (d) show pressure vs. elapsed time, which are the same as in Fig. 5(a), for facilitating comparisons with the movements of the AE hypocenters.
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Time-space distributions of AE hypocenters in oil injection
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Time-space distributions of AE hypocenters in pressurization via the urethane sleeve
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Dikes and conjugate fault planes under the maximum compressive stress, σ1, and the minimum compressive stress, σ3. This model was originally proposed for volcanic earthquake swarms. (After Hill 25)
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Stable and unstable crack growth from a viewpoint of stress intensity factor of mode I at a crack tip. (After Ishida et al. 16 following Zoback and Pollard 22)
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Fault-plane solutions of AE events in pressurization via the urethane sleeve. (a) No. 1 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.75,12.22,11.68;890.37). (b) No. 2 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.73,7.40,4.51;1169.50). (c) No. 3 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.53,12.23,14.39;1480.03).
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Fault-plane solutions of AE events in oil injection. (a) No. 1 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.75,12.22,11.68;890.37). (b) No. 2 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.53,12.23,14.39;1480.03). (c) No. 3 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.73,7.40,4.51;1169.50).
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Fault-plane solutions of AE events in water injection. (a) No. 1 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(10.33,4.27,10.99;424.92). (b) No. 2 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.16,15.58,11.44;1207.92). (c) No. 3 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(10.00,15.46,12.43;1209.04). The X-, Y- and Z-coordinates indicate the location of an AE source (unit: cm), and T indicates the elapsed time (unit: s). The fault-plane solutions are projected onto a lower hemisphere of a Schmidt net. The solid circles indicate compression in P-wave initial motion, whereas the open circles indicate dilatation.

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