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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Influence of Fluid Viscosity on the Hydraulic Fracturing Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Tsuyoshi Ishida

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, 755-8611 Japan

Qu Chen

Oyo Corporation, Miyahara-cho 1-66-2, Omiya, 330-0038 Japan

Yoshiaki Mizuta

Department of Civil Engineering, Sojo University, Ikeda, Kumamoto, 860-0082 Japan

Jean-Claude Roegiers

Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019-1014

J. Energy Resour. Technol 126(3), 190-200 (Oct 19, 2004) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1791651 History: Received November 20, 2002; Revised February 25, 2004; Online October 19, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Howard,  G. C., and Fast,  C. R., 1970, “Hydraulic Fracturing,” Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
Gidley,  J. L., Holditch,  S. A., Nierode,  D. E., and Veatch,  R. W., 1989, “Recent Advances in Hydraulic Fracturing,” Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
Hubbert,  M. K., and Willis,  D. G., 1957, “Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing,” Petroleum Transactions American Society of Mining Engineers, 210, pp. 153–168.
Haimson,  B. C., 1978, “The Hydrofracturing Stress Measuring Method and Recent Field Results,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 15, pp. 167–178.
Mizuta,  Y., Sano,  O., Ogino,  S., and Katoh,  H., 1987, “Three Dimensional Stress Determination by Hydraulic Fracturing for Underground Excavation Design,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 24, pp. 15–29.
Baria,  R., and Green,  A. S. P., 1986, “Seismicity Induced during a Viscous Stimulation at the Camborne School of Mines Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Project in Cornwall, England,” Progress in Acoustic Emission III, The Japanese Society of NDI, pp. 407–429.
Sasaki, S., 1995, “A Study on Characteristics and Source Mechanism of Acoustic Emission Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing,” Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai. (in Japanese).
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Cornet, F. H., 1992, “Fracture Processes Induced by Forced Fluid Percolation,” Volcanic Seismology, IAVCEI Proceedings in Volcanology, 3, edited by Gasparini, P., Scarpa, R., and Aki, K., Springer Verlag, pp. 407–431.
Zoback,  M. D., Rummel,  F., Jung,  R., and Raleigh,  C. B., 1977, “Laboratory Hydraulic Fracturing Experiments in Intact and Pre-Fractured Rock,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 14, pp. 49–58.
Baria,  R., Green,  A. S. P., and Jones,  R. H., 1989, “Anomalous Seismic Events Observed at the CSM HDR Project, U.K.,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 26, pp. 257–269.
Roegiers, J.-C., 1997, oral communication.
Lockner,  D., and Byerlee,  J. D., 1977, “Hydrofracture in Weber Sandstone at High Confining Pressure and Differential Stress,” J. Geophys. Res., 82, pp. 2018–2026.
Majer,  E. L., and Doe,  T. W., 1986, “Studying Hydrofractures by High Frequency Seismic Monitoring,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 23, pp. 185–199.
Matsunaga,  I., Kobayashi,  H., Sasaki,  S., and Ishida,  T., 1993, “Studying Hydraulic Fracturing Mechanism by Laboratory Experiments with Acoustic Emission Monitoring,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 30, pp. 909–912.
Ishida,  T., Chen,  Q., and Mizuta,  Y., 1997, “Effect of Injected Water on Hydraulic Fracturing Deduced from Acoustic Emission Monitoring,” Pure Appl. Geophys., 150, pp. 627–646.
Ishida,  T., 2001, “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Hydraulic Fracturing in Laboratory and Field,” Constr. Build. Mater., 15, pp. 283–295.
Kirsch, C., 1898, “Die Theorie der Elastizität und die Bedürfnisse der Festigkeitslehre, Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure,” 42 , pp. 797–807. (in German).
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Ishida,  T., Chen,  Q., Mizuta,  Y., and Roegiers,  J.-C., 1998, “Influence of Fluid Viscosity on the Hydraulically Induced Crack Geometry,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 35(4/5), pp. 460–462. (Paper No. 30).
Zoback, M. D., and Pollard D. D., 1978, “Hydraulic Fracture Propagation and the Interpretation of Pressure Time Records for In-Situ Stress Determination,” Proc. of 19th US Rock Mech. Symp., Mackay School of Mines, Reno, Nevada, pp. 14–22.
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Figures

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Specimen, loading condition, positions of AE sensors, and coordinate system
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Packer and urethane sleeve inserted into the boreholes. (unit: cm)
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AE monitoring system. (a) Recording system. (b) Reproducing system.
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Borehole pressure and AE rate vs. elapsed time. (a) Water injection. (b) Oil injection. (c) Pressurization via the urethane sleeve. Nos. 1, 2 and 3 in each figure indicate recorded time of AE events whose fault plane solutions are shown in Figs. 15, 16 and 17.
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Location of AE sources in water injection. Figures (a), (b) and (c) show projections on XY, XZ and YZ planes, respectively. Broken lines indicate position of borehole.
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Location of AE sources in oil injection
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Location of AE sources in pressurization via the urethane sleeve
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Sketches of visible cracks in water injection shown on unfolded planes. Upper figures, (a), show cracks observed on the surfaces of the specimens. Broken-line circles indicate the positions of cores drilled for inspection of cracks in the specimens. Lower figures, (b), show cracks observed on the surfaces of these extracted cores.
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Sketches of visible cracks in oil injection
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Sketches of visible cracks in pressurization via the urethane sleeve
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Time-space distributions of AE hypocenters in water injection. Three figures (a), (b) and (c) respectively show movements of AE hypocenters in X-, Y- and Z-directions with respect to elapsed time. The figures (d) show pressure vs. elapsed time, which are the same as in Fig. 5(a), for facilitating comparisons with the movements of the AE hypocenters.
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Time-space distributions of AE hypocenters in oil injection
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Time-space distributions of AE hypocenters in pressurization via the urethane sleeve
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Fault-plane solutions of AE events in water injection. (a) No. 1 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(10.33,4.27,10.99;424.92). (b) No. 2 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.16,15.58,11.44;1207.92). (c) No. 3 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(10.00,15.46,12.43;1209.04). The X-, Y- and Z-coordinates indicate the location of an AE source (unit: cm), and T indicates the elapsed time (unit: s). The fault-plane solutions are projected onto a lower hemisphere of a Schmidt net. The solid circles indicate compression in P-wave initial motion, whereas the open circles indicate dilatation.
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Fault-plane solutions of AE events in oil injection. (a) No. 1 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.75,12.22,11.68;890.37). (b) No. 2 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.53,12.23,14.39;1480.03). (c) No. 3 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.73,7.40,4.51;1169.50).
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Fault-plane solutions of AE events in pressurization via the urethane sleeve. (a) No. 1 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.75,12.22,11.68;890.37). (b) No. 2 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.73,7.40,4.51;1169.50). (c) No. 3 event, (X,Y,Z;T)=(9.53,12.23,14.39;1480.03).
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Stable and unstable crack growth from a viewpoint of stress intensity factor of mode I at a crack tip. (After Ishida et al. 16 following Zoback and Pollard 22)
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Dikes and conjugate fault planes under the maximum compressive stress, σ1, and the minimum compressive stress, σ3. This model was originally proposed for volcanic earthquake swarms. (After Hill 25)

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