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RESEARCH PAPERS

Mechanism of Formation Damage at Elevated Temperature

[+] Author and Article Information
J. M. Schembre

Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2220

A. R. Kovscek1

Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2220

1

Corresponding author email:kovscek@pangea.stanford.edu

J. Energy Resour. Technol 127(3), 171-180 (Mar 16, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1924398 History: Received August 12, 2004; Revised March 15, 2005; Accepted March 16, 2005

The pore and grain surface of reservoir rocks often has clay and other fine material attached onto pore walls. It has been long recognized that brine salinity and pH are key factors affecting the attractive forces between pore surfaces and fines. If mobilized particles are assembled in sufficient quantities, they obstruct pore throats and reduce the permeability of the formation. There is anecdotal evidence of substantial fines migration during steam injection enhanced oil recovery operations. As of yet, the mechanism of fines release with temperature is unexplained. The Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek theory of colloidal stability is used in conjunction with laboratory, core-scale experiments to demonstrate that high temperature, alkaline pH, and low salinity (typical characteristics of steam condensate) are sufficient to induce fines mobilization. Temperature is a key variable in calculations of fines stability. Hot-water floods are performed in Berea sandstone at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 200°C. Permeability reduction is observed with temperature increase and fines mobilization occurs repeatably at a particular temperature that varies with solution pH and ionic strength. A scanning electron microscope is used to analyze composition of the effluent samples collected during experiments. It confirms the production of fine clay material. On the practical side, this study provides design criteria for steam injection operations so as to control fines production.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

SEM Images from Berea sandstone core used in experiments. Inset presents kaolinite with a dimension of about 1μm.

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Figure 2

Compositional chromatography of effluent fines (low salinity injection, test 2 in core 1)

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Figure 3

Permeability measurements during experiments. Open symbols denote effluent is clear, whereas closed symbols denote that effluent contained fines.

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Figure 4

Experimental (35) and calculated zeta potential for quartz as a function of pH at at different salt concentrations

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Figure 5

Experimental (37) and calculated zeta potential for kaolinite as a function of pH at different salt concentrations

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Figure 6

Experimental (38) and calculated zeta potential for silica as a function of pH at different salt concentrations

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Figure 7

Experimental and calculated zeta potential for calcite as a function of pH at different salt concentrations. Experimental values provided by (a) Legens (39) and, (b) Pierre (40).

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Figure 8

Cross-plot of correlated versus zeta potential values at different temperature and materials

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Figure 9

Total potentials for a solution of 0.01 M NaCl at pH 10 and different temperatures: sphere(kaolinite)-plate(quartz), sphere radius is 1μm

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Figure 10

Detachment temperature obtained for quartz-kaolinite systems. Shading is in degree Celsius (°C).

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Figure 11

Detachment temperature isotherms for Berea sandstone: (a) experimental results and (b) analytical model

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Figure 12

Detachment temperature obtained for (a) silica-silica and, (b) silica-kaolinite systems, respectively. Shading is in degree Celsius (°C).

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Figure 13

Detachment temperature obtained for calcite-calcite. Data of (a) Legens and (b) Pierre Shading is in degree Celsius (°C).

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Figure 14

Experimental and calculated zeta potential for kaolinite as a function of pH for different references

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Figure 15

Detachment temperature obtained for quartz-kaolinite systems with three different reference curves for zeta potential. Data of (a) Williams and Williams (61), (b) Lorenz (60), (c) Ramachandran and Somasundaran (35). Shading is in degree Celsius (°C).

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Figure 16

Detachment temperature obtained for a cylinder-plate geometry: (a) kaolinite-quartz, (b) silica-silica, (c) silica-kaolinite, calcite

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