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RESEARCH PAPERS

NOx and N2O Emissions During Fluidized Bed Combustion of Leather Wastes

[+] Author and Article Information
Alberto Bahillo1

 Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, Spainalberto.bahillo@ciemat.es

Lourdes Armesto, Andrés Cabanillas, Juan Otero

 Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, Spainalberto.bahillo@ciemat.es

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 128(2), 99-103 (Jun 15, 2005) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2126986 History: Received June 14, 2004; Revised June 15, 2005

Transformation of hide (animal skins) into leather is a complicated process during which significant amounts of wastes are generated. Fluidized bed combustion has been extended to burn different wastes that have problems with their disposal showing its technical feasibility. Considering the characteristics of the leather waste, especially the heating value (12.521MJkg), it is a fairly good fuel. Moreover, leather waste has a high volatile matter, 65%, similar to other biomasses and unusual high nitrogen content, 14%. The aim of this work was to study leather wastes combustion in fluidized bed presenting experimental results regarding NOx and N2O emissions. A series of experiments were carried out in a fluidized bed pilot plant to understand the importance of operating parameters such as furnace temperature, oxygen content in gases, staged combustion and residence time on the NOx and N2O emission level. Despite having high nitrogen content, low conversion of N-fuel to NOx and N2O was measured during the combustion of leather waste in BFB. Bed temperature and oxygen content were found as the most important single parameters on N2O emission and only oxygen content has a significant influence on NOx emission. Leather waste exhibits a great NOxO2 trend; NOx emission decreases as the oxygen concentration decreases while the effect of combustion temperature on NOx is insignificant. Staged combustion does not give a reduction in NOx.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The 0.1kWth BFB boiler at CIEMAT

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Figure 2

Temperature profiles along the combustor height at different fluidization velocities: T=850°C, SR1=1.2, SR2=1.4

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Figure 3

Temperature profiles in the dense zone at different fluidization velocities: T=850°C, SR1=1.2, SR2=1.4

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Figure 4

CO, N2O, NOx concentration as a function of fluidization velocity. T=850°C, SR1=1.2, SR2=1.4.

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Figure 5

CO emission as a function of combustor temperature at four points located along the combustor. u=1m∕s, SR=1.2, SR=1.4.

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Figure 6

Fuel-N conversion to NO as a function of combustion temperature at different heights of the combustor. u=1m∕s, SR1=1.2, SR2=1.4.

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Figure 7

Fuel-N conversion to N2O as a function of combustion temperature at different heights of the combustor. u=1m∕s, SR1=1.2, SR2=1.4.

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Figure 8

NO emissions versus stoichiometric ratio at different heights of the combustor. T=850°C, u=1m∕s, SR2=1.4.

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Figure 9

N2O emissions versus stoichiometric ratio at different heights of the combustor. T=850°C, u=1m∕s, SR2=1.4.

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Figure 10

CO emissions as a function of oxygen content at different heights of the combustor. T=850°C, u=1m∕s.

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Figure 11

Fuel-N conversion to NO emission as a function of oxygen content at different heights of the combustor. T=850°C, u=1m∕s.

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Figure 12

Fuel-N conversion to N2O emission as a function of oxygen content at different heights of the combustor. T=850°C, u=1m∕s.

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