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RESEARCH PAPERS

The Operational Mixture Limits in Engines Fueled With Alternative Gaseous Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
S. O. Bade Shrestha1

Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering,  Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008bade.shrestha@wmich.edu

Ghazi A. Karim

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,  The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canadakarim@enme.ucalgary.ca

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 128(3), 223-228 (Apr 03, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2266267 History: Received June 30, 2005; Revised April 03, 2006

The operation of engines whether spark ignition or compression ignition on a wide range of alternative gaseous fuels when using lean mixtures can offer in principle distinct advantages. These include better economy, reduced emissions, and improved engine operational life. However, there are distinct operational mixture limits below which acceptable steady engine performance cannot be sustained. These mixture limits are usually described as the “lean operational limits,” or loosely as the ignition limits which are a function of various operational and design parameters for the engine and fuel used. Relatively simple approximate procedures are described for predicting the operational mixture limits for both spark ignition and dual fuel compression ignition engines when using a range of common gaseous fuels such as natural gas/methane, propane, hydrogen, and some of their mixtures. It is shown that good agreement between predicted and corresponding experimental values can be obtained for a range of operating conditions for both types of engines.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Operational mixture limits variation with compression ratio, methane operation in a CFR engine at 900rev∕min, the knock limits are also shown (see Ref. 12)

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Figure 2

The experimental variations of the exhaust gas concentrations of methane with total equivalence ratio for different pilot fuel quantities at ambient intake conditions at 1000rev∕min (see Ref. 13)

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Figure 3

The experimental variations of the exhaust gas concentrations of carbon monoxide with total equivalence ratio for different pilot fuel quantities at ambient intake conditions at 1000rev∕min (see Ref. 13)

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Figure 4

The variations of experimentally established operational limits with pilot quantity for methane operation at a compression ratio of 14.2:1, ambient temperature, and 1000rev∕min (see Ref. 13)

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Figure 5

Variation of the experimentally established operational limits with intake temperature for two operating engines: (A) compression ratio of 14.2 and pilot injection at 20°BTC and (B) compression ratio of 14.7 and pilot injection at 18°BTC with 1000rev∕min for both cases (see Ref. 13)

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Figure 6

The predicted and corresponding experimental operational limits of a CFR engine fueled with methane for various compression ratios at spark timing of 20°BTC, intake charge temperature of 294K, engine speed of 900rpm, and atmospheric pressure (symbols are experimental points and solid lines are predicted values) (see Ref. 18)

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Figure 7

The variations of predicted and experimental values of lean operational limits with compression ratios for different gaseous fuels at atmospheric pressure and intake temperature of 311K at 900rev∕min (symbols are experimental points and lines are predicted values) (see Ref. 18)

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Figure 8

The variation of experimental and predicted limit values in a CFR engine with intake mixture temperature for methane at compression ratio of 10:1, spark timing 13.9°BTC, and 900rev∕min (symbols are experimental points and solid lines are predicted values) (see Ref. 21)

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Figure 9

Variations of the calculated adiabatic flame temperature at the lean operational limit according to the three different methods for different pilot quantities with methane (symbols are experimental points) (see Ref. 12).

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Figure 10

Variations of the predicted and experimentally established operational limits with pilot quantity, methane operation at a compression ratio of 14.2, ambient temperature, and 1000rev∕min (symbols are experimental points and lines are predicted values) (see Ref. 13)

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