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RESEARCH PAPERS

Turbulent Lifted Flames in the Hysteresis Regime and the Effects of Coflow

[+] Author and Article Information
S. D. Terry

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,  North Carolina State University, Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910lyons@eos.ncsu.edu

K. M. Lyons1

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,  North Carolina State University, Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910lyons@eos.ncsu.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 128(4), 319-324 (Mar 17, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2358147 History: Received December 05, 2005; Revised March 17, 2006

A study of the characteristics of turbulent lifted-jet flames in the hysteresis regime was performed using methane and ethylene fuels in laminar and turbulent air coflows. Reattachment velocities and lifted flame heights just prior to reattachment vary linearly as for laminar flames in coflow. The flow regime of the coflow (i.e., laminar or turbulent) did not appear to affect the behavior of these flames. These observations are of utility in designing maximum turndown burners in air coflow, especially for determining stability criteria in low fuel-flow applications.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Plot displaying hysteresis effect for methane fuel with large nozzle, 0.18m∕s coflow (a), photographs of an attached flame (b), and lifted flame (c) using apparatus

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Figure 2

Lift-off heights for ethylene fuel with the large nozzle plotted against fuel velocity for a series of constant velocity air coflows

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Figure 3

Lifted flame heights just prior to reattachment versus coflow velocity and reattachment heights for methane/large nozzle,laminar, and turbulent coflow

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Figure 4

Sketch of the jet development region, showing the viscous cores for both the fuel and coflowing air

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Figure 5

Fuel velocity at reattachment as a function of nondimensionalized coflow velocity

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Figure 6

Nondimensionalized reattachment velocities for methane and ethylene

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Figure 7

General lifted flame heights as a function of coflow velocity for methane with large and small nozzles as well as ethylene

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