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Research Papers: Environmental Aspect of Energy Sources

# Improvements in Treatment of Waste From Petroleum Industry in Croatia

[+] Author and Article Information
Goran Durn, Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Heinz Fröschl

Seibersdorf Research, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria

John A. Veil

Argonne National Laboratory, 955 L’Enfant Plaza, SW, Suite 6000, Washington, DC 20024

Boris Veronek, Sanja Mesić

INA-Naftaplin, Šubićeva 29, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

J. Energy Resour. Technol 130(2), 022101 (May 02, 2008) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2906112 History: Received June 19, 2006; Revised December 07, 2007; Published May 02, 2008

## Abstract

Exploration and production (E&P) waste generated by the petroleum industry in Croatia from two central oilfield pits (COPs) was investigated in order to (1) examine materials for waste treatment that can preferentially sorb organic contaminants and, in that way, improve the process of stabilization/solidification (S/S), and (2) find field-acceptable methods to reduce the amount of waste to be treated with S/S or some other method. Composite samples from COP Vinkovci were treated in the laboratory with different materials or with combinations of several materials: (a) Cement, (b) organophilic clay, (c) calcined moler clay, (d) $lime+organophilic$$clay+bentonite$, (e) $cement+organophilic$$clay+bentonite$, (f) $lime+calcined$ moler clay, and (g) $cement+calcined$ moler clay. A sample of E&P waste treated with lime was used for comparison of results. The most successful treatment for the majority of inorganic and organic pollutants was treatment with organophilic clay. Samples treated with organophilic clay release 63 times less total oils, 67 times less mineral oils, 798 times less naphthalene, and 136 times less lead to distilled water than the sample treated with lime. The next most successful material is calcined moler clay. The results clearly show that reduction in hydrocarbon content using some of the field-acceptable methods and detailed chemical analysis of remaining organic and inorganic pollutants must be implemented before selecting the most appropriate method for treatment of technological waste in petroleum industry. A composite sample from COP Žutica was treated in the laboratory using a four-step procedure involving boiling water, condensate, and organophilic clay. Organophilic clay was used because of its ability to sorb hydrophobic pollutants. In the leachate of an E&P waste sample, the lowest values for the majority of inorganic and organic pollutants were observed following the fourth step (treatment with organophilic clay). This is also manifested in the lowest indicator of total discharge (ITD%) values for the fourth treatment step. Considering the concentrations of analyzed parameters in leachates and their ITD% values, the biggest effect for the majority of inorganic and organic pollutants was achieved between the first and the second treatment step. This suggests that treatment with boiling water is the most effective treatment for the majority of inorganic and organic pollutants. Concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylene (BETX) in distilled-water leachate generally increase after each succeeding treatment step. This shows that BETX is added to the E&P waste through condensate addition in the third treatment step.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Schematic view of COP Vinkovci

Figure 2

Schematic view of COP Žutica

Figure 3

Flowchart of the four steps of treatment of the composite waste sample

Figure 4

ITEs for heavy metals. The ITE is a unitless ratio that shows the effectiveness of a treatment process to minimize subsequent leaching of constituents compared to treatment using just lime. Two most effective indicators are presented. OC, organophilic clay; CMC, calcined moler clay; C, cement; and CMC+C, calcined moler clay+cement.

Figure 5

ITEs for selected organic parameters. The ITE is a unitless ratio that shows the effectiveness of a treatment process to minimize subsequent leaching of constituents compared to treatment using just lime. Two most effective indicators are presented. OC, organophilic clay; CMC, calcined moler clay; C+OC+B, cement+organophiliclay+bentonite; L, lime; L+OC+B, lime+organophiliclay+bentonite; L+CMC, lime+calcined moler clay; and CMC+C, calcined moler clay+cement.

Figure 6

Indicators of total discharge remaining after each treatment step (ITD%) for heavy metals. ITD%=ITD for a subsequent treatment step/ITD for the first treatment step.

Figure 7

Indicators of total discharge remaining after each treatment step (ITD%) for selected organic parameters. ITD%=ITD for a subsequent treatment step/ITD for the first treatment step.

## Errata

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