Research Papers: Hydrates/Coal Bed Methane/Heavy Oil/Oil Sands/Tight Gas

Factors Affecting Sulfur Reactions in High Sulfur Oil Shale Pyrolysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Omar S. Al-Ayed

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, P.O. Box 15008, Marka, 11134 Amman, Jordanomar.al-ayed@jordanoilshale.net

Moh’d Matouq

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, P.O. Box 15008, Marka, 11134 Amman, Jordan

J. Energy Resour. Technol 131(1), 012501 (Feb 06, 2009) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3068338 History: Received July 26, 2007; Revised September 22, 2008; Published February 06, 2009

Oil shale samples from the Ellajjun area south of Jordan were pyrolyzed in different conditions and environments. Sulfur of shale oil was determined using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Generated products swept from the retort by several sweeping media; they include nitrogen, water vapor, hydrogen, and mixture of nitrogen and water vapor. Other conditions are 2–11 mm particle size, 1 atm operating pressure, and 410550°C temperature range. The sulfur content of shale oil was found to be 12wt% for hydrogen pyrolysis, while water vapor at 1 atm decreased this value to 7wt%. Hydrogenation of oil shale resulted in 12wt%. the sulfur content of shale oil being at 420°C, and then reduced to 10.3wt% at temperatures higher than 470°C. When water vapor is added to nitrogen, the sulfur in the oil shale is increased by 4wt%. Water vapor sweeping gas increased the sulfur of the shale oil from 6.5wt% to 8.1wt% compared with a nitrogen pyrolyzing medium. Retorted shale analysis showed 44wt%, and 31wt% is left in the retorted shale of the original 4.5wt%. Sulfur found in the raw oil shale is unretorted for nitrogen and hydrogen sweeping gases. On the other hand, increasing particle size from 2 mm to 11 mm did not have any significant influence on the sulfur content of the produced shale oil.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Experimental setup

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Figure 2

Effect of sweep gas and pyrolysis temperature on weight loss percent of oil shale

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Figure 3

Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the sulfur content of shale oil

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Figure 4

Effect of particle diameter on wt % sulfur of shale oil



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