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Research Papers: Energy From Biomass

Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuel Blends

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Farahani, B. D. Tucker

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4, Canada

D. J. Y. S. Pagé1

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4, Canadapage-d@rmc.ca

M. P. Turingia

Director General Land Equipment Program Management, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, ON, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 131(4), 041801 (Nov 12, 2009) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000177 History: Received October 30, 2008; Revised August 11, 2009; Published November 12, 2009; Online November 12, 2009

A biodiesel storage stability study was conducted on ultralow sulfur diesel fuel (ULSDF) and three biodiesel basestocks (B100) and fuel blends (B2, B5, B10, and B20). The storage stability study consisted in measuring and monitoring the changes in acid number (AN, ASTM D664-04) and kinematic viscosity (ASTM D445) over 10 months with different samples stored at 5°C, 40°C, and cyclic thermal conditions. Among the three biodiesel base fuels (B100) studied, Bio1 (from tallow) and Bio2 (from yellow grease) showed the largest increase in AN throughout 6 months of storage at 40°C while Bio3 (from canola) showed the least increase in AN. Bio1, Bio2, and Bio3 samples stored at 5°C showed very little increases in acidity after 10 month, while samples stored under thermal cycling conditions were comparable to those stored at 40°C. The AN for ULSDF and all blends between B2 and B20 for Bio1, Bio2 and Bio3 remained in the range of 0.10.3mgKOHg1 for all temperatures and throughout the storage period well below the ASTM 6751 limit of 0.5mgKOHg1. All blends showed a lower increase in AN than any of the base fuels. All fuels were submitted to accelerated oxidative testing, which also revealed a greater stability of the blends than for the biodiesel base fuels. Bio1 (from tallow) blends displayed a greater stability under accelerated oxidative testing while Bio2 (from yellow grease) displayed the least. The impact of storage conditions on the viscosities of all the base fuels and blends was negligible.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Acid number of the Bio3-CME B100 biodiesel base fuel (black) and B20 (white), B10 (black), B5 (white), and B2 ((black) blends with ULSDF as a function of the period of storage at 40°C

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Increase in acid number (ΔAN) after six months storage at 40°C for all three biodiesel fuels from TME (◻), YGME (△), and CME (●), respectively, as a function of the biodiesel composition in vol %. Line indicates trend only.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

Oxidation stability (hours) under EN 14112 (Rancimat) for all biodiesel fuels from TME (◻), YGME (△) and CME (●), respectively, as a function of the biodiesel content in the blend in vol %; line indicates trend only

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 10

Normalized proton concentration decay in Bio3-CME as a function of accelerated oxidation at 95°C for 150 h: The normalized proton concentration presented was calculated from the peak integration from the allylic hydrogens at δ=2.05 ppm, the bisallylic hydrogens at δ=2.75 ppm, and the alkenyl hydrogens at δ=5.35 ppm

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Acid number of the Bio2-YGME B100 biodiesel base fuel (black) and B20 (white), B10 (black), B5 (white), and B2 ((black) blends with ULSDF as a function of the period of storage at 40°C

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Acid number of the three biodiesel base fuels B100 of TME (◻), YGME (△), and CME (○), respectively, and ULSDF (◆) as a function of the storage duration at 40°C; lines indicate trends only

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Acid number of the Bio1-TME B100 biodiesel base fuel as a function of the period of storage at 5°C (black) and 40°C (white) and under thermal cycling (gray); lines indicate trends only

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Acid number of the Bio2-YGME B100 biodiesel base fuel as a function of the period of storage at 5°C (black) and 40°C (white) and under thermal cycling (gray); lines indicate trends only

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Acid number of the Bio3-CME B100 biodiesel base fuel as a function of the period of storage at 5°C (black) and 40°C (white) and under thermal cycling (gray); lines indicate trends only

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Acid number of the Bio1-TME B100 biodiesel base fuel (black) and B20 (white), B10 (black), B5 (white), and B2 ((black) blends with ULSDF as a function of the period of storage at 40°C

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