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Research Papers: Heat Energy Generation/Storage/Transfer

Supervisory Feed-Forward Control for Real-Time Topping Cycle CHP Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
Heejin Cho1

 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MSIN K5-16, Richland, WA 99352heejin.cho@pnl.gov

Rogelio Luck, Louay M. Chamra

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box ME, Mississippi State, MS 39762

CHP originally stand for combined heat and power. In literature, CHP is also referred by various names for slightly different applications such as CCHP (combined cooling, heating, and power), BCHP (building cooling, heating, and power), DER (distributed energy resources), and cogeneration. Throughout this paper, CHP is used to refer to applications of combined cooling, heating, and power for buildings.

Detailed information of EnergyPlus is available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/.

Detailed information of TRNSYS is available at http://www.trnsys.com/ and http://sel.me.wisc.edu/trnsys/.

Detailed technical information for the small office and other commercial building benchmark models is available in Refs. 40-41.

Actual and predicted energy loads are obtained from two different days that have similar weather condition for realistic simulation.

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 132(1), 012401 (Feb 23, 2010) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000920 History: Received February 12, 2009; Revised October 17, 2009; Published February 23, 2010; Online February 23, 2010

This paper presents an energy dispatch algorithm for real-time topping cycle cooling, heating, and power (CHP) operation for buildings with the objective of minimizing the operational cost, primary energy consumption (PEC), or carbon dioxide emission (CDE). The algorithm features a supervisory feed-forward control for real-time CHP operation using short-term weather forecasting. The advantages of the proposed control scheme for CHP operation are (a) relatively simple and efficient implementation allowing realistic real-time operation, (b) optimized CHP operation with respect to operational cost, PEC, or CDE, and (c) increased site-energy consumption resulting in less dependence on the electric grid. In the feed-forward portion of the control scheme, short-term electric, cooling, and heating loads are predicted using the U.S. Department of Energy benchmark small office building model. The results are encouraging regarding the potential saving of operational cost, PEC, and CDE from using the control system for a CHP system with electric and thermal energy storages.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of a CHP system

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Figure 2

Supervisory control strategy of a building with a CHP system

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Figure 3

Network flow model of a typical CHP system

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Figure 4

Feed-forward control loop for CHP systems

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Figure 5

Fuel-to-electric-energy conversion efficiency of the 15 kW engine-generator package

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Figure 6

Fuel-to-electric-energy conversion of the 15 kW engine-generator package

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Figure 7

Linear interpretation of fuel energy and power output data

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Figure 8

Actual and predicted energy loads on a day in winter obtained using EnergyPlus

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Figure 9

Actual and predicted energy loads on a day in summer obtained using EnergyPlus

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Figure 10

Percentage variation in operational cost for CHP systems with and without energy storages with respect to a conventional HVAC system

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Figure 11

Percentage variation in PEC for CHP systems with and without energy storages with respect to a conventional HVAC system

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Figure 12

Percentage variation in CDE for CHP systems with and without energy storages with respect to a conventional HVAC system

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