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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Effects of Fuel Injection Timing in the Combustion of Biofuels in a Diesel Engine at Partial Loads

[+] Author and Article Information
A. J. Sequera

School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering,  University of Oklahoma, 212 Felgar Hall, 865 Asp Avenue, Norman, OK 73019axzel@ou.edu

R. N. Parthasarathy

School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering,  University of Oklahoma, 212 Felgar Hall, 865 Asp Avenue, Norman, OK 73019rparthasarathy@ou.edu

S. R. Gollahalli

School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering,  University of Oklahoma, 212 Felgar Hall, 865 Asp Avenue, Norman, OK 73019gollahal@ou.edu

J. Energy Resour. Technol 133(2), 022203 (May 26, 2011) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003808 History: Received August 17, 2010; Revised February 28, 2011; Published May 26, 2011; Online May 26, 2011

Methyl and ethyl esters of vegetable oils have become an important source of renewable energy with convenient applications in compression-ignition (CI) engines. While the use of biofuels results in a reduction of CO, particulate matter, and unburned hydrocarbons in the emissions, the main disadvantage is the increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx ) emissions. The increase in NOx emissions is attributed to differences in chemical composition and physical properties of the biofuel, which in turn affect engine operational parameters such as injection delay and ignition characteristics. The effects of fuel injection timing, which can compensate for these changes, on the performance and emissions in a single cylinder air-cooled diesel engine at partial loads using canola methyl ester and its blends with diesel are presented in this study. The engine is a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, CI engine with a displacement volume of 280 cm3 rated at 5 HP at 3600 rpm under a dynamometer load. It was equipped with a pressure sensor in the combustion chamber, a needle lift sensor in the fuel injector, and a crank angle sensor attached to the crankshaft. Additionally, the temperature of the exhaust gases was monitored using a thermocouple inside the exhaust pipe. Pollutant emissions were measured using an automotive exhaust gas analyzer. Advanced, manufacturer-specified standard, and delayed injection settings were applied by placing shims of different thicknesses under the injection pump, thus, altering the time at which the high-pressure fuel reached the combustion chamber. The start of injection was found to be insensitive to the use of biofuels in the engine. The late injection timing of the engine provided advantages in the CO and NO emissions with a small penalty in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Needle lift diagram for various shim thicknesses with CME B100 fuel

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Figure 2

Needle lift diagram of various diesel/CME blends at standard injection timing (0.7 mm shim thickness)

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Figure 3

Cylinder pressure as a function of crank angle for three injection timings at torque 30 in. lb for CME B100 fuel

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Figure 4

Cylinder pressure as a function of crank angle at standard injection timing and torque 30 in. lb for CME/diesel blends

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Figure 5

Torque variation with rpm for CME B100 at three injection timings

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Figure 6

Change in thermal efficiency with BMEP for CME B100 at three injection timings

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Figure 7

Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of BMEP for CME B100 at three injection timings

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Figure 8

Exhaust temperature variation with BMEP for CME B100 at three injection timings

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Figure 9

CO emission index as a function of BMEP for CME B50 at different injection timings

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Figure 10

Change in volumetric concentration of CO2 with BMEP for CME B50 at different injection timings

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Figure 11

Change in NO emission index with BMEP for CME B50 at different injection timings

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