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Research Papers

Potential Benefits of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Consumers and Electric Power Utilities

[+] Author and Article Information
Jim B. Himelic, Frank Kreith

 Xcel Energy, 550 15th Street, Denver, CO 80202 e-mail: James.B.Himelic@xcelenergy.com Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1111 Engineering Drive, Boulder, CO 80309 e-mail: fkreith@comcast.net

J. Energy Resour. Technol 133(3), 031001 (Aug 10, 2011) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004151 History: Received November 30, 2008; Revised September 12, 2010; Published August 10, 2011; Online August 10, 2011

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential of substantially reducing petroleum consumption and vehicular CO2 emissions relative to conventional vehicles. The analysis presented in this article first ascertains the cost-effectiveness of PHEVs from the perspective of the consumer. Then, the potential effects of PHEVs to an electric utility are evaluated by analyzing a simplified hypothetical example. When evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a PHEV, the additional required premium is an important financial parameter to the consumer. An acceptable amount for the additional upfront costs will depend on the future costs of gasoline and the on-board battery pack. The need to replace the on-board battery pack during the assumed vehicle lifetime also affects the allowed premium. A simplified unit commitment and dispatch model was used to determine the costs of energy and the CO2 emissions associated with PHEVs for different charging scenarios. The results show that electricity can be used to charge PHEVs during off-peak hours without an increase in peak demand. In addition, the combined CO2 emissions from the vehicles and the electric generation facilities will be reduced, regardless of the charging strategy.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Depiction of charge-depleting mode of operation

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Figure 2

U.S. retail cost of gasoline [5]

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Figure 3

Breakeven initial premiums for a PHEV-20 and HEV with and without battery replacement, assuming an IRR of 10%

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Figure 4

Map outlining MISO service territory [13]

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Figure 5

Type of generating facility providing energy for marginal loading of PHEV fleet

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Figure 6

Financial return from 1 PHEV-20 for varying charging scenarios

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Figure 7

Load duration curve for original 2006 MISO-MINN Hub and the addition of 250,000 PHEV-20s

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Figure 8

Annual net CO2 avoided emissions from 250,000 PHEVs

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