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Research Papers: Petroleum Transport/Pipelines/Multiphase Flow

A Modular Differential Dielectric Sensor for Use in Multiphase Separation, Process Measurement, and Control—Part I: Analytical Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Dong Xiang1

 The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104

Ram S. Mohan, Shoubo Wang, Ovadia Shoham

 The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104

Jack D. Marrelli

 Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX 77002

1

Current address: Temco Inc., Tulsa, OK 74104 a Division of Core Laboratories LP.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 133(4), 043002 (Dec 02, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004978 History: Received July 22, 2009; Revised August 14, 2011; Published December 02, 2011

Oil industry increasingly demands accurate and stable continuous measurement of the percent water in crude oil production streams (watercut) over the entire 0 to 100% range. High accuracy and stability are also required for surface measurement to support niche applications such as control of processes which remove trace amounts of oil and particulates from produced water prior to disposal. Differential dielectric sensors (DDS) have been developed by Chevron as independent tools connected with multiphase meters for process management and composition measurement. This paper is a two-part paper—the first part (current paper) deals with analytical modeling of the DDS (configured in a single ended mode) and the second part (accompanying paper) discusses the results of key experimental investigations obtained in a differential mode. The main objective of this paper is to develop appropriate mathematical models for the DDS which characterize the microwave attenuation and phase shift as functions of fluid properties, sensor geometry and operational conditions. Forward models based on the analysis of microwave propagation have been developed for sensors configured as circular waveguides. Results of this project will be useful for optimization and refinement of multiphase meters.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of circular differential dielectric sensor

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Figure 2

Modeling of circular DD sensor

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Figure 3

Attenuation comparison between analytical model and test data (single ended)—frequency sweep (29.5 °C distilled water)

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Figure 4

Phase shift comparison between analytical model and test data—frequency sweep (29.5 °C distilled water)

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Figure 5

Comparison between analytical model and test data—differential attenuation (oil continuous, 29.3 °C distilled water injection, oil reference, 9.5 GHz)

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Figure 6

Comparison between analytical model and test data—differential phase shift (oil continuous, 29.3 °C distilled water injection, oil reference, 9.5 GHz)

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Figure 7

Comparison between analytical model and test data—differential attenuation (water continuous, 29.3 °C oil injection, distilled water reference, 9.5 GHz)

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Figure 8

Comparison between analytical model and test data—differential phase shift (water continuous, 29.3 °C oil injection, distilled water reference, 9.5 GHz)

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