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Research Papers: Petroleum Transport/Pipelines/Multiphase Flow

A Modular Differential Dielectric Sensor for Use in Multiphase Separation, Process Measurement, and Control—Part II: Experimental Investigation

[+] Author and Article Information
Dong Xiang1

 The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104

Ram S. Mohan, Shoubo Wang, Ovadia Shoham

 The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104

Jack D. Marrelli

 Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX 77002

1

Current address: Temco Inc., Tulsa, OK 74104, a Division of Core Laboratories LP.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 133(4), 043003 (Dec 02, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004964 History: Received July 22, 2009; Revised August 14, 2011; Published December 02, 2011; Online December 02, 2011

Accurate and continuous measurement of the percent water in crude oil production streams (watercut) over 0 to 100% range is critical for petroleum industry. High accuracy and stability are also required for surface measurement to support process control applications aimed at removing trace amounts of oil and particulates from produced water. This paper is a two-part paper—the first part [1] deals with analytical modeling of the differential dielectric sensors (DDS) and the second part (current paper) discusses the results of key experimental investigations. A dedicated closed-loop experimental facility is used to obtain in-line real-time measurement of DDS data in a controlled configuration. A complete description of test facility is presented followed by detailed experimental results. The results show that DDS is unique in its use of very low noise and high sensitivity differential measurements between two identical sensors. In a process control system, DDS shows good measurement stability and is adaptive to composition measurements compensating for changes in oil composition, gas fraction, emulsion state, water salinity, temperature, and flow rate. Because of its auto calibration capability, DDS can also perform real-time calibration for sensor configuration changes caused by factors such as corrosion and erosion.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 3

Sensor cell configuration

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Figure 4

RF Three channel fluid test cell and microwave components

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Figure 5

Test results for absolute attenuation versus frequency (29.3 °C)

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Figure 6

Test results for absolute attenuation versus temperature (9.5 GHz)

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Figure 7

Test results for differential attenuation versus temperature (9.5 GHz, Oil Reference)

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Figure 8

Test results for differential phase versus temperature (9.5 GHz, Oil Reference)

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Figure 9

Test results for differential attenuation versus watercut (oil continuous, 29.3 °C, distilled water injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 10

Test results for differential phase versus watercut (oil continuous, 29.3 °C distilled water injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 11

Test results for standard deviation of differential attenuation versus watercut (oil continuous, 29.3 °C distilled water injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 12

Test results for standard deviation of differential phase versus watercut (oil continuous, 29.3 °C distilled water injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 13

Test results for standard deviation of differential attenuation versus watercut (oil continuous, 29.3 °C distilled water injection, oil reference)

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Figure 14

Test results for standard deviation of differential phase versus watercut (oil continuous, 29.3 °C distilled water injection, oil reference)

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Figure 15

Test results for differential attenuation versus watercut (water continuous, 29.3 °C, oil injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 16

Test results for differential phase versus watercut (water continuous, 29.3 °C, oil injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 17

Test results for standard deviation of differential attenuation versus watercut (water continuous, 29.3 °C, oil injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 18

Test results for standard deviation of differential phase versus watercut (water continuous, 29.3 °C, oil injection, distilled water reference)

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Figure 19

Test results for standard deviation of differential attenuation versus watercut (water continuous, 29.3 °C, oil injection, oil reference)

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Figure 20

Test results for standard deviation of differential phase versus watercut (water continuous, 29.3 °C, oil injection, oil reference)

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Figure 2

Schematic of DDS experimental facility

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Figure 1

Schematic of circular differential dielectric sensor

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