0
Research Papers: Hydrogen Energy

An Experimental Investigation on the Role of Hydrogen in the Emission Reduction and Performance Trade-Off Studies in an Existing Diesel Engine Operating in Dual Fuel Mode Under Exhaust Gas Recirculation

[+] Author and Article Information
Probir Kumar Bose

Rahul Banerjee1

Mechanical Engineering Department,  National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura 799055, Indiaiamrahul.ju@gmail.com

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 134(1), 012601 (Jan 30, 2012) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005246 History: Received February 12, 2011; Revised September 22, 2011; Published January 30, 2012; Online January 30, 2012

With emission legislations getting more stringent in order to comply with the responsibilities of environmental obligations, engine manufacturers are turning to explore new avenues to meet the paradox of curtailing particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on one hand and maintaining consumer expectations of reduced fuel consumption and increased thermal efficiency on the other. Studies dedicated in mitigating such paradoxical objectives have established novel emission reduction systems such as the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) after treatment systems but at the expense of increased complexity of deployment and cost. The present work explores the emission and performance characteristics of an existing four stroke single cylinder engine operating with a predefined flow rate of hydrogen as a dual fuel. The hydrogen was premixed with the incoming air and inducted during the duration of intake valve opening by means of an indigenously developed cam actuated electromechanical timed manifold injection technique. exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (hot and cooled) technique has been implemented in the present work to reduce NOx emissions which were enriched with the same amount of hydrogen. Research studies carried out on the efficacy of EGR techniques have reported the inherent penalty of increasing the common diesel pollutants of smoke and particulate matter and fuel consumption at the expense of reducing NOx emissions. Trade-off studies in the present work revealed contrary results, where 20% cooled EGR under hydrogen enrichment registered a decrease of 9.2% and 12.3% in NOx emissions at 60% and 80% load as compared to diesel operation while simultaneously retaining a reduction of 4.6% and 1.9% in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) along with 10% and 8.33% corresponding decrease in smoke emissions and a reduction of 11.30% and 12.31% in total unburnt hydrocarbon (TUHC) emissions. CO emissions were simultaneously decreased by 26.6% and 20.0% while CO2 emissions decreased by 24.5% and 29.1%, respectively, while maintaining 4.8% and 2% increase in brake thermal efficiency and a reduction of 23.3% and 18.95% in specific fuel consumption (SFC) (diesel) simultaneously at the respective loads. Similar trade-off potential, as was evident in the 10% EGR strategies, provide a strong motivation to explore the role of hydrogen as in situ dual fuel solution to counter the conflicting emission and performance requirements of contemporary diesel engines made to operate under EGR.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Timed manifold hydrogen induction circuit

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Photograph of A = Experimental setup in laboratory; B = Electromechanical actuating setup; C = Solenoid injection system setup; D = EGR circuit

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Schematic diagram of solenoid-actuated electromechanical TMHI circuit in open and closed position

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Inlet valve timing diagram of experimental engine

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Schematic of emission analysis instrument setup

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Schematic of EGR circuit

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Variation of EHEPR with load

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Effect of EHEPR on the overall equivalence ratio for all hydrogen enrichment test cases with load as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

Effect of EHEPR on the BSEC for all hydrogen enrichment test cases with load as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 10

Effect of EHEPR on the BTHE and SFC (diesel) for all hydrogen enrichment test cases as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 11

Effect of EHEPR and overall equivalence ratio on CO2 emissions for all hydrogen enrichment test cases as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 12

Effect of EHEPR and overall equivalence ratio on CO emissions for all hydrogen enrichment test cases as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 13

Effect of EHEPR on the TUHC emissions for all hydrogen enrichment test cases with load as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 14

Effect of EHEPR and overall equivalence ratio on % opacity for all hydrogen enrichment test cases as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 15

Effect of overall equivalence ratio and exhaust gas temperature on NOx emissions for all hydrogen enrichment test cases as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 16

Effect of EHEPR and overall equivalence ratio on NOx emissions for all hydrogen enrichment test cases as compared to baseline diesel operation

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 17

Extent of diesel and hydrogen energy participation on NOx emissions for all cases of hydrogen enrichment

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 18

Smoke-NOx trade-off in all cases of loading

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 19

Effect of EHEPR and overall equivalence ratio on percent change in NOx emissions for all hydrogen enrichment test cases with percent smoke reductions as labeled parameter

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 20

Percent change in TUHC emissions as compared to baseline diesel projected onto the smoke-NOx trade-off map

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 21

Percent change in CO emissions as compared to baseline diesel projected onto the smoke-NOx trade-off map

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 22

Percent change in CO2 emissions as compared to baseline diesel projected onto the smoke-NOx trade-off map

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 23

Percent change in brake thermal efficiency as compared to baseline diesel with corresponding SFC reduction as a labeled parameter on the smoke-NOx trade-off map

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In