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Technical Briefs

Sand Transportations and Deposition Characteristics in Multiphase Flows in Pipelines

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Al-lababidi1

Multiphase Fluids Engineering Solutions Ltd, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK10 7AYs.allababidi@cranfield.ac.ukDepartment of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering,  Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, United Kingdoms.allababidi@cranfield.ac.uk

W. Yan, H. Yeung

Multiphase Fluids Engineering Solutions Ltd, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK10 7AYDepartment of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering,  Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, United Kingdom

1

Corresponding author.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 134(3), 034501 (May 07, 2012) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006433 History: Received June 11, 2010; Revised January 18, 2012; Published May 07, 2012; Online May 07, 2012

Sand management strategies become an important study to be performed as part of multiphase flow assurance assessments during oil and gas project life and especially for subsea multiphase flow network. This paper presents experimental works to investigate the sand transport characteristics and identify the sand minimum transport condition (MTC) in sand–water and sand–air–water flows in a horizontal and + 5 deg inclined pipelines. The used sand volume fraction, Cv , ranged from 1.61 × 10−5 up to 5.38 × 10−4 . The sand minimum transport velocity in single-phase water flow was obtained visually and then compared with that calculated by previous correlations for slurry transport. It was found that in sand–water flow, the pipeline inclination had negligible effect on the minimum sand transport velocity. However, the transport characteristics of sand particles were found changed significantly by changing the pipe inclination, which could result in the change of air–water flow regime. It was observed that sand particles transport more efficiently in terrain slug than stratified wavy flow in +5 deg inclined pipes. The sand transport and settling boundary for different air–water flow regimes were generated for horizontal and +5 deg inclined pipeline.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Two-phase air–water facility

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Figure 2

Sand size distribution used in test

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Figure 3

Sand flow pattern in water flow

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Figure 4

Sand transport velocities comparison

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Figure 5

Effect of pipe inclination on sand transport velocity

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Figure 6

Air–water horizontal flow regime map

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Figure 7

Comparison between Taitle-Duckler [28] and observed air–water horizontal flow regime map

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Figure 8

Sand dunes in stratified wavy flow at VSL  = 0.07 ms− 1 and VSG  = 6 ms− 1 (view from the bottom, flow direction left to right)

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Figure 9

Scouring sand dunes in stratified wavy flow at VSL  = 0.07 ms− 1 and VSG  = 7 ms− 1 (view from bottom, flow direction left to right)

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Figure 10

Sand dunes in stratified wavy flow at VSL  = 0.07 ms− 1 and VSG  = 8 ms− 1 (view from bottom, , flow direction left to right)

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Figure 11

Sliding sand bed in stratified wavy flow at VSL  = 0.07 ms− 1 and VSG  = 10 ms− 1 (view from bottom, flow direction left to right)

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Figure 12

Schematic of sand particles motion in slug flow

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Figure 13

Identified sand boundary transport regions map considering sand concentration effect in horizontal air–water flow

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Figure 14

Air–water flow regime map in + 5 deg inclined pipeline

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Figure 15

Comparison between Taitel-Duckler [28] and observed air–water flow regime maps in + 5 deg inclined pipeline

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Figure 16

Sand patterns in stratified wavy flow (side view)

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Figure 17

Sand behaviour in plug flow at VSL  = 0.5 ms− 1 and VSG  = 0.05 ms− 1 in + 5 deg inclined plug flow

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Figure 18

Sand behaviour in terrain slug flow at VSL  = 0.5 ms− 1 , VSG  = 0.2 ms− 1 in + 5 deg inclined slug flow

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Figure 19

Identified sand boundary transport regions map considering sand concentration effect in + 5 deg inclined air–water flow

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Figure 20

Inclination effect in + 5 deg inclined air–water flow

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Figure 21

Inclination effect in + 5 deg inclined air–water flow

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