Energy Extraction From Natural Resources

Postconsumer Plastic Waste Over Post-Use Cracking Catalysts for Producing Hydrocarbon Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
Yeuh-Hui Lin

e-mail: t50027@cc.kyu.edu.tw

Mu-Hoe Yang

Department of Greenergy,
Kao Yuan University,
Kaohsiung 821, Taiwan, ROC

Sheau-Long Lee

Department of Chemistry,
Chinese Military Academy,
Kaohsiung 830, Taiwan, ROC

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received April 10, 2012; final manuscript received August 13, 2012; published online November 15, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Sarma V. Pisupati.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(1), 011701 (Nov 15, 2012) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-12-1073; doi: 10.1115/1.4007661 History: Received April 10, 2012; Revised August 13, 2012

The recycling of plastic waste is important both in the conservation of resources and the environment. A plastic waste (polyethylene(PE)/polypropylene(PP)/polystyrene(PS)/polyvinyl chloride(PVC)) was pyrolyzed over a series of post-use fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts using a fluidizing reaction system similar to the FCC process operating isothermally at ambient pressure. Experiments carried out with these catalysts gave good yields of valuable hydrocarbons with differing selectivity in the final products dependent on reaction conditions. A model based on kinetic considerations associated with chemical reactions and catalyst deactivation in the catalytic degradation of plastics has been developed. Greater product selectivity was observed with a hybrid catalyst (SAHA/CAT-R1) of amorphous silica-aluminas (SAHA) and a recycle FCC catalyst with regeneration (CAT-R1) with more than 68.6 wt. % olefins products. It is demonstrated that the catalytic degradation of postconsumer plastics over these recycled catalysts using fluidizing cracking reactions was shown to be a useful method for the production of potentially valuable hydrocarbons.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Billingham, N. C., 1999, Polymers and the Environment, Gerald Scott, Royal Society of Chemistry, London.
Cornell, D. D., 1995, Plastics, Rubber, and Paper Recycling: A Pragmatic Approach, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 72–79.
Brandrup, J., Bittner, M., Michaeli, W., and Menges, G., eds., 1996, Recycling and Recovery of Plastics, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich.
Gupta, A. K., Ilanchezhian, E., and Keating, E. L., 1996, “Thermal Destruction Behavior of Plastic and Nonplastic Wastes in a Laboratory-Scale Facility,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 118(4), pp. 269–276. [CrossRef]
Sodero, S. F., Berruti, F., and Behie, L. A., 1996, “Ultrapyrolytic Cracking of Polyethylene—A High Yield Recycling Method,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 51, pp. 2805–2816. [CrossRef]
Floriani, S. L., Virmond, E., Luiz, D. B., Althoff, C. A., Jose, H. J., and Moreira, R. F. P. M., 2010, “Potential of Industrial Solid Wastes as Energy Sources and Gaseous Emissions Evaluation in a Pilot Scale Burner (ES2008-54355),” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(1), p. 011003 [CrossRef].
Sharratt, P. N., Lin, Y. H., Garforth, A., and Dwyer, J., 1997, “Investigation of the Catalytic Pyrolysis of High-Density Polyethylene Over HZSM-5 Catalyst in a Laboratory Fluidized Bed Reactor,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, pp. 5118–5124. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. H., Yang, M.-H., Wei, T.-T., Hsu, C.-T., Wu, K.-J., and Lee, S.-L., 2010, “Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Chlorinated Plastic Waste Into Valuable Hydrocarbons Over Post-Use Commercial FCC Catalysts,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 87(1), pp. 154–162. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. H., and Yang, M. H., 2007, “Catalytic Conversion of Commingled Polymer Waste Into Chemicals and Fuels Over Spent FCC Commercial Catalyst in a Fluidised-Bed Reactor,” Appl. Catal., B, 69, pp. 145–153. [CrossRef]
Ohkita, H., Nishiyama, R., Tochihara, Y., Mizushima, T., Kakuta, N., Morioka, Y., Namiki, Y., Katoh, H., Nakayama, R., and Kuroyanagi, T., 1993, “Acid Properties of Silica-Alumina Catalysts and Catalytic Degradation of Polyethylene,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 32, pp. 3112–3116. [CrossRef]
Uemichi, Y., Nakamura, J., Itoh, T., Sugioka, M., Garforth, A. A., and Dwyer, J., 1999, “Conversion of Polyethylene Into Gasoline-Range Fuels by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation Using Silica-Alumina and HZSM-5 Zeolite,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 38, pp. 385–390. [CrossRef]
Aguado, J., Serrano, D. P., Escola, J. M., Garagorri, E., and Fernandez, J. A., 2000, “Catalytic Conversion Polyolefins Into Fuels Over Zeolite Beta,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 69(1), pp. 11–16. [CrossRef]
Dawood, A., and Miura, K., 2002, “Catalytic Pyrolysis of γ-Irradiated Polypropylene (PP) Over HY-Zeolite for Enhancing the Reactivity and the Product Selectivity,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 76(1), pp. 45–52. [CrossRef]
Monos, G., Yusof, I. Y., Gangas, N. H., and Papayannakos, N. K., 2002, “Tertiary Recycling of Polyethylene to Hydrocarbon Fuel by Catalytic Cracking Over Aluminum Pillared Clays,” Energy Fuels, 16, pp. 485–489. [CrossRef]
Gao, Z., Kaneko, T., Amasaki, I., and Nakada, M. A., 2003, “A Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of Polypropylene,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 80, pp. 269–274. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. H., Tseng, C.-C., Wei, T.-T., and Hsu, C.-T., 2011, “Recycling of Dual Hazardous Wastes in a Catalytic Fluidizing Process,” Catal. Today, 174(1), pp. 37–45. [CrossRef]
Gobin, K., and Monos, G., 2004, “Thermogravimetric Study of Polymer Catalytic Degradation Over Microporous Materials,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 86, pp. 225–231. [CrossRef]
de la Puente, G., Klocker, C., and Sedran, U., 2002, “Conversion of Waste Plastics Into Fuels: Recycling Polyethylene in FCC,” Appl. Catal., B, 36(4), pp. 279–285. [CrossRef]
Ghanbari-Siakhali, A., Philippou, A., Garforth, A. A., Cundy, C. S., Anderson, M. W., and Dwyer, J., 2001, “A Comparison of Direct Synthesis and Vapour Phase Alumination of MCM-41,” J. Mater. Chem., 11(2), pp. 569–577. [CrossRef]
Marcilla, A., Gomez, A., Reyes-Labrta, J. A., and Giner, A., 2003, “Catalytic Pyrolysis of Polypropylene Using MCM-41: Kinetic Model,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 80(2), pp. 233–240. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. H., 2009, “Production of Valuable Hydrocarbons by Catalytic Degradation of a Mixture of Post-Consumer Plastic Waste in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 94(11), pp. 1924–1931. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. H., and Yang, M. H., 2008, “Tertiary Recycling of Polyethylene Waste by Fluidised-Bed Reactions in the Presence of Various Cracking Catalysts,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 83(1–2), pp. 101–109. [CrossRef]
Prasad, B. G. S., 2010, “Energy Efficiency, Sources and Sustainability,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(2), p. 020301. [CrossRef]
Jain,V., Basu, P., and Groulx, D., 2012, “A Method for Reduction in the Start-Up Time of a Bubbling Bed Boiler Combustor,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(3), p. 031401. [CrossRef]
Bousbaa, H., Sary, A., Tazerout, M., and Liazid, A., 2012, “Investigations on a Compression Ignition Engine Using Animal Fats and Vegetable Oil as Fuels,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), p. 022202. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. H., and Yang, M. H., 2008, “Chemical Catalysed Recycling of Polypropylene Over a Spent FCC Catalyst and Various Commercial Cracking Catalysts Using TGA,” Thermochim. Acta, 470, pp. 52–59. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a catalytic fluidized-bed reactor system: (1) feeder, (2) furnace, (3) sintered distributor, (4) fluidised catalyst, (5) reactor, (6) condenser, (7) flow meter, (8) 16-loop automated sample system, (9) gas bag, (10) GC, and (11) digital controller for three-zone furnace

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A kinetic/mechanistic reaction scheme for the degradation of postconsumer plastic waste (PE/PP/PS/PVC) over various catalysts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison of hydrocarbon yields as a function of time for the catalytic degradation of postconsumer plastic mixture (PE/PP/PS/PVC) at 390 °C over different catalysts (catalyst to plastic ratio = 30 wt. %, rate of fluidization gas = 600 ml min−1 and catalyst particle size = 125–180 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of hydrocarbon yields as a function of time at different reaction temperatures for the catalytic degradation of postconsumer polymer mixture (PE/PP/PS/PVC) over CAT-R1 catalyst (rate of fluidization gas = 600 ml min−1, catalyst to plastic ratio = 30 wt. % and catalyst particle size = 125–180 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of hydrocarbon yields as a function of time at different fluidization gas for the degradation of postconsumer polymer mixture (PE/PP/PS/PVC) over CAT-R1 catalyst (reaction temperature = 390 °C, catalyst to plastic ratio = 30 wt. % and catalyst particle size = 125–180 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of calculated (m) and experimental (e) results for the degradation of postconsumer plastic mixture (PE/PP/PS/PVC) over (a) CAT-C1, (b) CAT-R1, and (c) CAT-C3 catalysts at 390 °C (catalyst particle size = 125–180 μm, fluidizing N2 rate = 600 ml min−1 and catalyst to plastic ratio = 30% wt./wt.)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In