Performance Analysis and Working Fluid Optimization of a Cogenerative Organic Rankine Cycle Plant

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Micheli, R. Taccani

Department of Engineering and Architecture,
University of Trieste,
via Valerio 10,
34100 Trieste, Italy

P. Pinamonti

Department of Electrical and Mechanical
Engineering and Management,
University of Udine,
via delle Scienze 208,
33100 Udine, Italy
e-mail: piero.pinamonti@uniud.it

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received November 10, 2011; final manuscript received May 29, 2012; published online January 10, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Sarma V. Pisupati.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(2), 021601 (Jan 10, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-11-1144; doi: 10.1115/1.4023098 History: Received November 10, 2011; Revised May 29, 2012

The paper presents the results of a research regarding the application of cogeneration plants, based on organic rankine cycle (ORC), fed with wood residuals. In the first part of the paper an energy audit of the companies in a furniture industry district, located in the North-East of Italy, is presented. On the basis of these data a typical electricity/thermal demand profile dependent on the number of employees has been determined. In order to evaluate the potential savings achievable with an ORC cogeneration plant, a numerical simulation model has been developed to analyse the energy balances of the components as well as the whole ORC power plant performance. The effects on the system energy and exergy efficiencies of different binary and ternary mixtures of polisiloxane as working fluid and of different operating modes (cogeneration or pure electricity production) have been analysed, also in off-design conditions.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hung, T. C., Shai, T. Y., and Wang, S. K., 1997, “A Review of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) for the Recovery of Low-Grade Waste Heat,” Energy, 22(7), pp. 661–667. [CrossRef]
Dong, L., Liu, H., and Riffat, S., 2009, “Development of Small-Scale and Micro-Scale Biomass-Fuelled CHP Systems—A Literature Review,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29, pp. 2119–2126. [CrossRef]
Tchanche, B. F., Lambrinos, G., Frangoudakis, A., and Papadakis, G., 2011, “Low-Grade Heat Conversion Into Power Using Organic Rankine Cycles—A Review of Various Applications,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15, pp. 3963–3979. [CrossRef]
Duvia, A., Guercio, A., and Rossi, C., 2009, “Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Fuelled CHP Plants Based on ORC Turbogenerators Feeding Existing District Heating Networks,” Proceedings of 17th European Biomass Conference, Hamburg, Germany, June 29–July 3.
Patel, C., Lettieri, P., Simons, S. J. R., and Germanà, A., 2011, “Techno-Economic Performance Analysis Different Scales in the UK Context,” Chem. Eng. J., 171, pp. 986–996. [CrossRef]
Rentizelas, A., Karellas, S., Kakaras, E., and Tatsiopoulos, I., 2009, “Comparative Techno-Economic Analysis of ORC Bioenergy Applications,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50, pp. 674–681. [CrossRef]
Obernberger, I., and Thek, G., 2008, “Combustion and Gasification of Solid Biomass for Heat and Power Production in Europe—State-of-the-Art and Relevant Future Developments,” Proceedings of 8th European Conference of Industrial Furnaces and Boilers, Vilamoura-Algarve, Portugal, Mar. 25–28.
Meneghetti, A., Nardin, G., and Simeoni, P., 2002, “Waste-to-Energy Application in an Industrial District,” Appl. Energy, 72, pp. 443–465. [CrossRef]
Chinese, D., Meneghetti, A., Nardin, G., and Simeoni, P., 2004, “Application of Biomass Fed ORC Power Systems in the Furniture Manufacturing Industrial District of Pordenone: Part I: Determinants of Renewable Energy Exploitation,” Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium Energy and Environment, Sorrento, Italy, Sept. 30–Oct. 2.
Micheli, D., Pinamonti, P., Reini, M., and Taccani, R., 2004, “Application of Biomass Fed ORC Power Systems in the Furniture Manufacturing Industrial District of Pordenone: Part II: Development of Thermodynamic Cycle Simulation Model,” Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium Energy and Environment, Sorrento, Italy, Sept. 30–Oct. 2.
Moustafa, S., Hoefler, W., El-Mansy, H., Kamal, A., Jarrar, D., Hoppman, H., and Zewen, H., 1984, “Design Specifications and Application of a 100 kWc (700 kWth) Cogeneration Solar Power Plant,” Sol. Energy, 32(2), pp. 263–269. [CrossRef]
Kribus, A., Zaibel, R., Carey, D., Segal, A., and Karni, J., 1998, “A Solar-Driven Combined Cycle Power Plant,” Sol. Energy, 62(2), pp. 121–129. [CrossRef]
Kane, M., Larrain, D., Favrat, D., and Allani, Y., 2003, “Small Hybrid Solar Power System,” Energy, 28, pp. 1427–1443. [CrossRef]
Jing, L., Gang, P., and Jie, J., 2010, “Optimization of Low Temperature Solar Thermal Electric Generation With Organic Rankine Cycle in Different Areas,” Appl. Energy, 87, pp. 3355–3365. [CrossRef]
Delgado-Torres, A. M., and Garcia-Rodriguez, L., 2010, “Analysis and Optimization of the Low-Temperature Solar Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC),” Energy Convers. Manage., 51, pp. 2846–2856. [CrossRef]
Schochet, D. N., 1997, “Performance of ORMAT Geothermal Binary and Combined Steam/Binary Cycle Power Plants With Moderate and High Temperature Resources,” Renewable Energy, 10(2–3), pp. 379–387. [CrossRef]
Larjola, J., 1995, “Electricity From Industrial Waste Heat Using High-Speed Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC),” Int. J. Prod. Econ., 41, pp. 227–235. [CrossRef]
Desideri, U., and Bidini, G., 1997, “Study of Possible Optimisation Criteria for Geothermal Power Plants,” Energy Convers. Manage., 38(15–17), pp. 1681–1691. [CrossRef]
Obernberger, I., 2001, “Biomass CHP Based on the ORC Process: EU-Thermie Project Admont,” VDI Bericht, 1588, pp. 283–302 [“Thermische Nutzung von fester Biomasse,” Tagungsband zur VDI-Tagung, Salzburg, Austria].
Obernberger, I., Thonhofer, P., and Reisenhofer, E., 2002, “Description and Evaluation of a New 1000 kWel Organic Rankine Cycle Process Integrated in the Biomass CHP Plant in Lienz Austria,” Euro Heat Power, 10, pp. 18–25.
Obernberger, I., Carlsen, H., and Biedermann, F., 2003, “State of the Art and Future Developments Regarding Small-Scales Biomass CHP System With a Special Focus on ORC and Stirling Engine Technologies,” Proceedings International Nordic Bioenergy Conference, Jyvaskyla, Finland, pp. 331–339.
Bini, R., Guercio, A., and Duvia, A., 2009, “Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in Biomass Applications for Cogenerative Systems in Association With Adsorption Chillers,” Proceedings of 5th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia, Sept. 30–Oct. 3.
Wei, D., Lu, X., Lu, Z., and Gu, J., 2007, “Performance Analysis and Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy Convers. Manage., 48(4), pp. 1113–1119. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., Dai, Y., and Gao, L., 2009, “Exergy Analyses and Parametric Optimizations for Different Cogeneration Power Plants in Cement Industry,” Appl. Energy, 86(6), pp. 941–948. [CrossRef]
Srinivasan, K. K., Mago, P. J., Zdaniuk, G. J., Chamra, L. M., and Midkiff, K. C., 2008, “Improving the Efficiency of the Advanced Injection Low Pilot Ignited Natural Gas Engine Using Organic Rankine Cycles,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 130(2), p. 022201. [CrossRef]
Mathias, J. A., Johnston, J. R., Jr., Cao, J., Priedeman, D. K., and Christensen, R. N., 2009, “Experimental Testing of Gerotor and Scroll Expanders Used in, and Energetic and Exergetic Modeling of, an Organic Rankine Cycle,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(1), p. 012201. [CrossRef]
Boretti, A. A., 2012, “Energy Recovery in Passenger Cars,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), p. 022203. [CrossRef]
Khaliq, A., and Trivedi, S. K., 2012, “Second Law Assessment of a Wet Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine Combined With Organic Rankine Cycle,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), p. 022201. [CrossRef]
Vaja, I., and Gambarotta, A., 2010, “Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Bottoming With Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs),” Energy, 35(2), pp. 1084–1093. [CrossRef]
Bonafin, J., Pinamonti, P., Reini, M., and Tremuli, P., 2010, “Performance Improving of an Internal Combustion Engine for Ship Propulsion With a Bottom ORC,” Proceedings of the ECOS 2010 Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, June 14–17.
Duvia, A., and Gaia, M., 1998, “ORC Plants for Power Production From Biomass From 0,4 MWe to 1,5 MWe: Technology, Efficiency, Practical Experiences and Economy,” Proceedings of 7th Holzenergie-Symposium, Zurich, Switzerland.
Moro, R., Pinamonti, P., and Reini, M., 2008, “ORC Technology for Waste-Wood to Energy Conversion in the Furniture Manufacturing Industry,” J. Therm. Sci., 12(4), pp. 61–73. [CrossRef]
Turboden, retrieved April 3, 2012, http://www.turboden.eu
Ormat, retrieved April 3, 2012, http://www.ormat.com
Angelino, G., and Invernizzi, C., 1993, “Cyclic Methylsiloxanes as Working Fluids for Space Power Cycles,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 115(3), pp. 130–137. [CrossRef]
Fernández, F. J., Prieto, M. M., and Suárez, I., 2011, “Thermodynamic Analysis of High-Temperature Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycles Using Siloxanes as Working Fluids,” Energy, 36, pp. 5239–5249. [CrossRef]
Lai, N. A., Wendland, M., and Fischer, J., 2011, “Working Fluids for High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles,” Energy, 36, pp. 199–211. [CrossRef]
Chen, H., Goswami, D. Y., and Stefanakos, E. K., 2010, “A Review of Thermodynamic Cycles and Working Fluids for the Conversion of Low-Grade Heat,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 14, pp. 3059–3067. [CrossRef]
Wang, E. H., Zhang, H. G., Fan, B. Y., Ouyang, M. G., Zhao, Y., and Mu, Q. H., 2011, “Study of Working Fluid Selection of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for Engine Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy, 36, pp. 3406–3418. [CrossRef]
Dai, Y., Wang, J., and Gao, L., 2009, “Parametric Optimization and Comparative Study of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50, pp. 576–582. [CrossRef]
Roy, J. P., and Misra, A., 2012, “Parametric Optimization and Performance Analysis of a Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle Using R-123 for Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy, 39, pp. 227–235. [CrossRef]
Macchi, E., and Perdichizzi, A., 1981, “Efficiency Prediction for Axial-Flow Turbines Operating With Nonconventional Fluids,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 103(4), pp. 718–724. [CrossRef]
Wilcock, D. F., 1946, “Vapor Pressures-Viscosity Relations in Methylpolysiloxanes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, pp. 691–696. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., Colonna di Paliano, P., 1998, “Multicomponent Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs),” Energy, 23(6), pp. 449–463. [CrossRef]
Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Poling, B. E., 1988, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Flaningam, O. L., 1986, “Vapor Pressures of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Oligomers,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 31, pp. 266–272. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. L., Zhao, L., and Wang, X. D., 2010, “A Comparative Study of Pure and Zeotropic Mixtures in Low-Temperature Solar Rankine Cycle,” Appl. Energy, 87, pp. 3366–3373. [CrossRef]
Li, W., Feng, X., Yu, L. J., and Xu, J., 2011, “Effects of Evaporating Temperature and Internal Heat Exchanger on Organic Rankine Cycle,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31, pp. 4014–4023. [CrossRef]
Gawlik, K., and Hassani, V., 1998, “Advanced Binary Cycles: Optimum Working Fluids,” Proceedings of Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Sep. 20–23.
Heberle, F., Preißinger, M., and Brüggemann, D., 2012, “Zeotropic Mixtures as Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources,” Renewable Energy, 37, pp. 364–370. [CrossRef]
Wong, D. S. H., and Sandler, S. I., 1992, “A Theoretically Correct Mixing Rule for Cubic Equations of State,” AIChE J., 38, pp. 671–680. [CrossRef]
Wong, D. S. H., Orbey, H., and Sandler, S. I., 1992, “Equation of State Mixing Rule for Nonideal Mixtures Using Available Activity Coefficient Model Parameters and That Allows Extrapolation Over Large Ranges of Temperature and Pressure,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 31, pp. 2033–2039. [CrossRef]
Drescher, U., and Brüggemann, D., 2007, “Fluid Selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in Biomass Power and Heat Plants,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(1), pp. 223–228. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Different fuels utilized in the industrial district firms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Installed thermal power as a function of employees number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Installed electric power as a function of employees number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Power to thermal ratio as a function of installed electric power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Simplified scheme of a cogenerative ORC plant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

ORC model flow sheet in Aspen Plus®

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

T-S diagram of the ORC cycle with MDM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Electricity to heat ratio as a function of inlet thermal load, at various condensing pressures (kPa). Cogenerative operation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Gross electric power as a function of inlet thermal load, at various condensing pressures (kPa). Non-cogenerative operation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Plant components allocation of exergy introduced with diathermic oil. Cogenerative operation, pCON = 14 kPa, Qin = 6000 kW.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Plant components allocation of exergy introduced with diathermic oil. Non-cogenerative operation, pCON = 4 kPa, Qin = 6000 kW.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Electric efficiency as a function of inlet thermal load, at various condensing pressures (kPa). Cogenerative operation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Electric efficiency as a function of inlet thermal load, at various condensing pressures (kPa). Non-cogenerative operation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Heat transfer diagram for some of the considered working fluids



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In