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research-article

Superimposition of Elementary Thermodynamic Cycles and Separation of the Heat Transfer Section in Energy Systems Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Matteo Morandin

Division of Heat and Power Technology,
Department of Energy and Environment,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Kemivägen 4,
SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
e-mail: matteo.morandin@chalmers.se

Andrea Toffolo

Division of Energy Science,
Department of Engineering
Sciences and Mathematics,
Luleå University of Technology,
SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
e-mail: andrea.toffolo@ltu.se

Andrea Lazzaretto

Fellow ASME
Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Padova,
via Venezia 1,
35151 Padova, Italy
e-mail: andrea.lazzaretto@unipd.it

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received May 11, 2012; final manuscript received November 19, 2012; published online January 10, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Laura Schaefer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(2), 021602 (Jan 10, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-12-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4023099 History: Received May 11, 2012; Revised November 19, 2012

In a wide variety of thermal energy systems, the high integration among components derives from the need to correctly exploit all the internal heat sources by a proper matching with the internal heat sinks. According to what has been suggested in previous works to address this problem in a general way, a “basic configuration” can be extracted from the system flowsheet including all components but the heat exchangers, in order to exploit the internal heat integration between hot and cold thermal streams through process integration techniques. It was also shown how the comprehension of the advanced thermodynamic cycles can be strongly facilitated by decomposing the system into elementary thermodynamic cycles which can be analyzed separately. The advantages of the combination of these approaches are summarized in this paper using the steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle and its evolution towards more complex system configurations as an example of application. The new concept of “baseline thermal efficiency” is introduced to combine the efficiencies of the elementary cycles making up the overall system, which demonstrates to be a useful reference to quantify the performance improvement deriving from heat integration between elementary cycles within the system.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Basic configuration of a regenerative gas turbine

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Fig. 2

Basic configuration of a two-pressure level combined cycle

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Fig. 3

Basic configuration of a HAT cycle

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Fig. 4

Basic configuration of an S-Graz cycle

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Fig. 5

The STIG cycle: 1-2 air compression (C), 2:6-3 combustion (CC), 3-4 HTT, 5-6 water pumping (P) plus evaporation and steam superheating

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Fig. 6

The thermal efficiency and the thermal coupling conditions for the STIG cycle for different turbine inlet temperatures (cycle maximum temperature): (a) 1200 °C, (b) 1400 °C, and (c) 1600 °C

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Fig. 7

The STIG cycle with HPT: 1-2 air compression (C), 2:7-3 combustion (CC), 3-4 HTT, 5-6 water pumping (P) plus evaporation and steam superheating, 6-7 high pressure expansion (HPT)

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Fig. 8

The thermal efficiency and the thermal coupling conditions for the STIG cycle with HPT for gas turbine inlet temperature at 1400 °C and different steam maximum pressures (a) pHPT=30bars, (b) pHPT=60bars, and (c) pHPT=120bars

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Fig. 9

The STIG cycle with HPT and LPT: 1-2 air compression (C), 2:7-3 combustion (CC), 3-4 HTT, 4-8 low pressure expansion (LPT), 9-10 combustion product compression (C2), 5-6 water pumping (P) plus evaporation and steam superheating, 6-7 high pressure expansion (HPT)

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Fig. 10

The thermal efficiency and the thermal coupling conditions for the STIG cycle with HPT and LPT

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