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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Influence of Boiler Load Swing Rates on Response of Drum Water Level

[+] Author and Article Information
M. A. Habib

e-mail: mahabib@kfupm.edu.sa

I. Alzaharnah

e-mail: iyadtz@kfupm.edu.sa

M. El-Shafei

e-mail: elshafei@kfupm.edu.sa
Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

S. Al-Anizi

e-mail: salamah.anizi@aramco.com

M. Y. Al-Awwad

e-mail: mossaed.awwad@aramco.com

M. Hajji

e-mail: mohammad.hajji.1@aramco.com
Consulting Services Department,
Saudi Aramco,
Dhahran 31311, Saudi Arabia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received March 25, 2012; final manuscript received November 8, 2012; published online April 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: S. O. Bade Shrestha.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(2), 022904 (Apr 22, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-12-1066; doi: 10.1115/1.4023329 History: Received March 25, 2012; Revised November 08, 2012

In this study, swing rates of drum boilers are investigated in regard to maintaining proper drum level limits. The nonlinear boiler model employed in study investigations was validated by comparing simulated results against literature data. Experimental field data was recorded for variations in firing, steam, and feedwater flow rates in addition to drum pressure and water level were obtained from a Saudi Aramco power plant. The experimental results were used also for tuning the water level control loop and finding the proportional and integral gains of the boiler model that was simulated using matlab. Influence of steam demand perturbations on water drum levels was tested using four different perturbation schemes and in all cases the levels were found to be within the allowable limits. The time variation of drum water level in response to 40% ramp increase in steam demand occurring at the four different input perturbations was obtained. The considered values of swing rates of steam flow were eight steps of 5% per minute, four steps of 10% per minute, two steps of 20% per minute, or one step of 40% per minute. Although the maximum transient water level overshoot is attained due to the one step of 40% per minute perturbation, still remains within the allowable limits of either the low or high levels according to the boiler manufacturer specifications. The present results indicate that the allowable swing rates are much lower in the case of drop in steam demand in comparison to the case of rise in steam demand.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Construction of the boiler furnace: water circulation loop (dimensions are in millimeters)

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Fig. 2

Feedwater flow rate control circuit [25]

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Fig. 3

Steam plant configuration

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Fig. 4

Experimental data for variation of steam flow rate [14,19]

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Fig. 5

Comparison between the numerical results of response of drum water level to variations in steam demand and the experimental data of Refs. [14,26]

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Fig. 6

Variation in steam flow rate for boiler A

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Fig. 7

Calculated and experimental result of response of drum water level to variations in steam flow for boiler A

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Fig. 8

Calculated results and experimental data for feedwater flow rate in response to variations in steam flow for boiler A

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Fig. 9

Response of drum pressure to variation in steam flow rate for boiler A

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Fig. 10

Variation in feedwater flow rate for boiler A

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Fig. 11

Response of drum water level to variation in feedwater flow for boiler A

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Fig. 12

Steam drum level measurements for Mitsubishi Heavy Industry boiler 40 VP-26 W [25]

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Fig. 13

Response of feedwater flow rate to variation in steam flow for boiler B

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Fig. 14

Variation in steam flow for boiler B

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Fig. 15

Response of drum pressure to variation in steam flow for boiler B

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Fig. 16

Variation in feedwater flow rate for boiler B

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Fig. 17

Close view for variation in steam flow for boiler A

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Fig. 18

Close view for response of drum pressure to variation in steam flow rate for boiler A

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Fig. 19

Close view for response of feedwater flow rate to variation in steam flow rate for boiler A

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Fig. 20

Time variations of steam demand perturbations (the input perturbations in the steam demand)

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Fig. 21

Response of drum water level to perturbations in steam demand at different swing rates

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Fig. 22

Influence of swing rates on maximum limits of drum water level in response to rise in steam demand

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Fig. 23

Influence of swing rates on maximum limits of drum water level in response to drop in steam demand

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Fig. 24

Response of drum pressure to perturbations in steam demand at different swing rates

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Fig. 25

Response of feedwater flow rate to perturbations in steam demand at different swing rates

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