Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

The Low Emission Turbogas Hybrid Vehicle Concept—Preliminary Simulation and Vehicle Packaging

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Capata

e-mail: roberto.capata@uniroma1.it

E. Sciubba

e-mail: enrico.sciubba@uniroma1.it
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Roma “Sapienza”,
Roma, Italy 00184

EEC Directive 90/C81/01: this is a series of Regulations that prescribe both the emissions limits (adjusted every year) and the methods for testing and qualifying passenger and commercial vehicles. The test driving are in one urban cycle (European Cycle Emission) and an extra urban driving mission (Extra Urban Driving Cycle).

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received January 3, 2012; final manuscript received March 26, 2013; published online June 3, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Kevin M. Lyons.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(3), 032203 (Jun 03, 2013) (13 pages) Paper No: JERT-12-1001; doi: 10.1115/1.4024118 History: Received January 03, 2012; Revised March 26, 2013

The paper presents a comprehensive review of the gas turbine hybrid vehicle (GTHV) under development at the University of Roma “Sapienza.” A GHTV is an electric vehicle (traction entirely electric on 1 or 2 axles) equipped with a small turbogas operating as a range extender and –when needed- as a recharger for other auxiliaries. After a brief review of the history of the GTHV technology, a few configurations proposed in the past by different Authors are described and critically analyzed. Then, a complete feasibility assessment of a prototype configuration of a GTHV is presented and discussed in detail. Two possible implementations are studied: one for a small city car (peak power 4–8 kW) and one for a sport GT or passenger sedan (50–100 kW). All issues related to the system and component design, packaging, identification of the “optimal” hybridization ratio, performance of the conversion chain (gas turbine + batteries + electrical motor), kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS), mechanical and electric storage devices (flywheels, capacitors, advanced batteries), monitoring and control logic, compliance with the European vehicular ECE emission regulations, are explicitly addressed. One of the most important results of this analysis is though that there are several “nearly optimal” solutions and the final choice for a possible future industrialization would be dictated by manufacturing, commercial or marketing considerations. It because not only the system performance, but also the absolute and relative sizes (i.e., nameplate power) of the turbines and of the battery package depend substantially on the type of driving mission the car is required to perform. In the paper, both theoretical and practical issues are addressed, and on the basis of the analysis of the existing state of the art, it is argued that the GTHV is an environmentally friendly, technically and economically feasible product based on mature components.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Fig. 1

The parallel (a) and series and (b) hybrid concepts

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Fig. 2

Scheme of the LETHE® propulsion system

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Fig. 3

Scheme of the LETHE® energy fluxes

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Fig. 4

(a) Typical London city drive cycle on time/velocity diagram; and (b) power balance for the London city drive on time/power diagram

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Fig. 5

(a) Advisor control panel and (b) Advisor configuration for series HV

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Fig. 6

Driving cycles simulated (the x-axis represents time (s) and the y-axis elevation (m) on the right side and speed (km/h) on the left)

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Fig. 7

Efficiency and energy fluxes for EUDC cycle in on–off logic

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Fig. 8

Efficiency and energy fluxes for EUDC cycle in load following logic

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Fig. 9

Components packaging and weights distribution for the LETHE® configuration




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