0
Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Cooling Systems for Power Plants in an Energy-Water Nexus Era

[+] Author and Article Information
Kaufui V. Wong, James Johnston

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Miami,
Coral Gables, FL 33146

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 23, 2013; final manuscript received June 20, 2013; published online August 19, 2013. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(1), 012001 (Aug 19, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1138; doi: 10.1115/1.4024918 History: Received April 23, 2013; Revised June 20, 2013

Potable water is becoming scarce in many areas of the planet as the human population pushes past 7 × 109. There is an increasing need for electric power since electricity is essential for modern development and progress. Traditionally, condenser cooling systems for power plants use seawater or freshwater in conjunction with cooling tower technology. Seawater is used in plants near the sea or ocean, and seawater condenser cooling systems are typically open systems. More recently, air-cooling has been implemented and undergoing evaluations. Predictably, during the summer season in hot, semidesert and desert areas, air-cooling would not prove very efficient. Ironically, these areas would require the most fresh, potable water if the population and/or population density is large. The need for additional power generation units to satisfy consumer demands, and hence more cooling capacities, creates a problem for utilities. The current work researches the feasibility of using seawater cooling systems in the United States of America that are far from the sea. Five such locations have been identified as possibilities. Such a system has proven successful in South Florida. This system utilizes a series of cooling canals, used to dissipate the condenser heat to the surroundings. Relevant statistics of such a canal include water flow rate, total capacity, and MW of generators (both fossil-fueled and nuclear steam generators) the system is designed to cool. Additional statistics include the possible need to top-up (both amount and frequency of water required to maintain canal surface levels) or whether local natural rain water is adequate to replace evaporation and loss. Logistical information includes the estimated size of land required to accommodate the cooling canals. In estimating the canal system size and concomitantly the land required in other parts of the country, there is the tacit assumption that the thermal capacity of the surrounding land is about the same, and that the thermal conductivities of the different types of soil, and the heat transfer coefficients between the seawater and the canal are similar.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Wong, K. V., and Amador, G., 2010, “Power Generation for the Near Future,” Proc. IMECE, Nov., Vancouver, Canada.
Aslani, A., Antila, E., and Wong, K. V., 2012, “Comparative Analysis of Energy Security in Nordic Countries: The Role of Renewable Energy Resources in Diversification,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 4(6), p. 062701. [CrossRef]
Singh, B., Kaur, J., and Singh, K., 2010, “Production of Biodiesel From Used Mustard Oil and Its Performance Analysis in Internal Combustion Engine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132, p. 031001. [CrossRef]
Yusaf, T. F., 2009, “Diesel Engine Optimization for Electric Hybrid Vehicles,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131, p. 012203. [CrossRef]
Lofman, D., Petersen, M., and Bower, A., 2002, “Water, Energy, and Environment Nexus: The California Experience,” Int. J. Water Resour. Dev., 18(1), pp. 73–85. [CrossRef]
Wong, K. V., and Chaudhry, S., 2012, “Use of Satellite Images for Observational and Quantitative Analysis of Urban Heat Islands Around the World,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(4), p. 042101. [CrossRef]
Wong, K. V., Dai, Y., and Paul, B., 2012, “Anthropogenic Heat Release Into the Environment,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(4), p. 041602. [CrossRef]
Wilkinson, R., 2011, The Water-Energy Nexus in the American West, Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA, pp. 1–15.
Schumerth, D. J., 2012, “Gray and Impaired Water Cooling in Surface Condensers and Heat Exchangers”, Proc. ICONE, Aug., Anaheim, CA.
Bracco, S., Caligaris, O., and Trucco, A., “Mathematical Models of Air-Cooled Condensers for Thermoelectric Units,” Trans. Wessex Inst.
“Chuck Lenzie Generating Station Fact Sheet,” 13 April 2013, https://www.nvenergy.com/company/energytopics/images/Lenzie_Fact_Sheet.pdf
“Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3,” 13 April 2013, http://www.nrc.gov/info-finder/reactor/tp3.html
“Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Unit 4,” 13 April 2013, http://www.nrc.gov/info-finder/reactor/tp4.html
FPL Program Engineering Manager, 2013, personal communications.
Arizona Nuclear Power Plants, Summer Capacity and Net Generation, 2010, 13 April 2013, http://www.eia.gov/nuclear/state/arizona/
Schwartz, A., “Attention Cities: You Can Sell Your Excess Waste Water to Nuclear Power Plants,” 1 April 2010, http://www.fastcompany.com/1604109/attention-cities-you-can-sell-your-excess-wastewater-nuclear-power-plants
“Odessa Power at a Glance,” 13 April 2013, http://www.odessapower.com/ataglance.asp
“Quail Run Energy Center,” 13 April 2013, http://www.navasotaenergy.com/inner.php?page=19
“Springerville Generating Station,” 13 April 2013, http://www.srpnet.com/about/stations/springerville.aspx
“ADEQ Fact Sheet,” 13 April 2013, http://www.azdeq.gov/download/tepfact.pdf
“Ground Temperatures as a Function of Location, Season, Depth,” 10 June 2013, http://www.builditsolar.com/Projects/Cooling/EarthTemperatures.htm.
Laity, J., 2008, Deserts and Desert Environments, Blackwell Publishing, Hoboken, NJ, p. 54.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A satellite image of the plant with an area calculation tool highlighting the canals [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Annual rainfall for FL in 2012. Turkey Point is highlighted by a star [16].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

An aerial view of the Palo Verde power plant with approximately 16 square miles of area marked out [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

AZ’s 2012 rainfall. The star is the location of Palo Verde [25].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The Newman Power Plant with an area allotted for the canals [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Rainfall map of TX. The Newman Power Plant marker can be seen at the extreme western point of TX [28].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The highlighted area shows the land where canal construction is possible surrounding the two power plants [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

An aerial view of Springerville Generating Station. The highlighted area is a proposed location for a canal system [31].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The Chuck Lenzie Generating Station in Apex, NV. Marked area is the proposed area for the canal cooling system [11].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

NV’s 2012 rainfall. The star is the location of Chuck Lenzie Generating Station in Apex, NV [34].

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In