Research Papers: Oil/Gas Reservoirs

CO2 Flooding to Increase Recovery for Unconventional Liquids-Rich Reservoirs

[+] Author and Article Information
B. Todd Hoffman

Colorado School of Mines,
1500 Illinois St.,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: thoffman@mines.edu

Shehbaz Shoaib

Montana Tech,
1300 W. Park St.,
Butte, MT 59701

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 18, 2013; final manuscript received October 23, 2013; published online December 23, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Sarma V. Pisupati.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(2), 022801 (Dec 23, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1024; doi: 10.1115/1.4025843 History: Received January 18, 2013; Revised October 23, 2013

The rising energy demand is causing the petroleum industry to develop unconventional oil reservoirs; however, the primary recovery factor is low in these types of reservoirs. Alternative methods to increase recovery need to be studied. This paper analyzes the impact of CO2 flooding a sector of the Elm Coulee field using reservoir modeling. The sector is two miles by two miles and consists of six original single-lateral horizontal wells. Two different reservoir models are built for the sector: a primary recovery black oil model and a CO2 flood solvent model. They are used to determine the additional recovery due to a CO2 flood. Furthermore, the CO2 flood model is executed with different scenarios to determine the best well locations and injection schemes. The models demonstrate that CO2 flooding horizontal wells in the Elm Coulee field increases production. Comparison of vertical and horizontal injection techniques indicates continuous horizontal CO2 injection is more efficient; it yields higher injection rates, and it is also beneficial for long-term recovery. Focusing on horizontal injection, the best scenario involves the practice of drilling new injectors and producers along with converting existing producers to injection wells. In order to satisfy production requirements, production wells can be drilled such that there is an injector between two producers. This type of arrangement on horizontal injection increases the field recovery factor over 15% after eighteen years of injection.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.



Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Map of Elm Coulee field with sector selected for modeling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Permeability multiplier values as function of reservoir pressure for the shale region

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Fluid properties for Elm Coulee reservoir model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Two dimensional view of reservoir grid highlighting the six well locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of historical and simulated production data [17]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of historical and simulated oil production rates in the future on primary recovery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Values of solvent (CO2) formation volume factor and viscosity as a function of pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Increase in sector production rate after CO2 injection from twelve vertical injectors (Scenario 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Extent of areal sweep in the layer 1 and cross section of A to A′ after the addition of twelve vertical injectors of CO2 (Scenario 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Location of four horizontal injectors, HINJ1–HINJ4, with respect to production wells (Scenario 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Increase in sector production rate after CO2 injection from four horizontal injectors (Scenario 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Location of newly added injectors, producers converted to injectors, and newly added producers (Scenario 3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Increase in sector production rate after addition of two horizontal injectors, conversion of two existing producers and addition of two production wells (Scenario 3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Extent of areal sweep in the layer 1 and cross section of A to A′ for Scenario 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Increase in sector production rate after cyclic CO2 injection treatment on all producers (Scenario 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Porosity and permeability data from Elm Coulee core sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Variation in permeability in x-direction in top layer of reservoir




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In