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Research Papers

Modeling the Influence of Land-Shape on the Energy Production Potential of a Wind Farm Site

[+] Author and Article Information
Souma Chowdhury

Research Assistant Professor
Member of ASME
Multidisciplinary Design
and Optimization Laboratory (MDOL),
Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Syracuse University,
Syracuse, NY 13244
e-mail: sochowdh@syr.edu

Jie Zhang

Post Doctoral Research Associate
Member of ASME
Multidisciplinary Design
and Optimization Laboratory (MDOL),
Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Syracuse University,
Syracuse, NY 13244
e-mail: jzhang56@syr.edu

Weiyang Tong

Multidisciplinary Design
and Optimization Laboratory (MDOL),
Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Syracuse University,
Syracuse, NY 13244
e-mail: wtong@syr.edu

Achille Messac

Dean of the Bagley College of Engineering
Professor and Earnest W.
and Mary Ann Deavenport, Jr. Chair
Fellow of ASME
Aerospace Engineering,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762
e-mail: messac@bagley.msstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 26, 2013; final manuscript received November 22, 2013; published online February 28, 2014. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(1), 011203 (Feb 28, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1095; doi: 10.1115/1.4026201 History: Received March 26, 2013; Revised November 22, 2013

During wind farm planning, the farm layout or turbine arrangement is generally optimized to minimize the wake losses, and thereby maximize the energy production. However, the scope of layout design itself depends on the specified farm land-shape, where the latter is conventionally not considered a part of the wind farm decision-making process. Instead, a presumed land-shape is generally used during the layout design process, likely leading to sub-optimal wind farm planning. In this paper, we develop a novel framework to explore how the farm land-shape influences the output potential of a site, under a given wind resource variation. Farm land-shapes are defined in terms of their aspect ratio and directional orientation, assuming a rectangular configuration. Simultaneous optimizations of the turbine selection and placement are performed to maximize the energy production capacity, for a set of sample land-shapes with fixed land area. The maximum farm capacity factor or farm output potential is then represented as a function of the land aspect ratio and land orientation, using quadratic and Kriging response surfaces. This framework is applied to design a 25 MW wind farm at a North Dakota site that experiences multiple dominant wind directions. An appreciable 5% difference in capacity factor is observed between the best and the worst sample farm land-shapes at this wind site. It is observed that among the 50 sample land-shapes, higher energy production is accomplished by the farm lands that have aspect ratios significantly greater than one, and are oriented lengthwise roughly along the dominant wind direction axis. Subsequent optimization of the land-shape using the Kriging response surface further corroborates this observation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Key factors (inputs and outputs) in wind farm design

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Fig. 2

Framework to model the relationship between the farm land configuration (aspect ratio and orientation) and the farm performance

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Fig. 3

Wind-rose diagram for the site at Baker [31]

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Fig. 4

Optimized farm layouts for sample farm land-shapes

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Fig. 5

Variation of the maximized farm capacity factor (CFmax) with respect to the farm land aspect ratio (aR) and orientation(φ), as given by the quadratic response surface

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Fig. 6

Variation of the maximized farm capacity factor (CFmax) with respect to the farm land aspect ratio (aR) and orientation(φ), as given by the Kriging surrogate model

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Fig. 7

Convergence history for optimizing the wind farm land-shape

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Fig. 8

Optimized farm layout corresponding to the optimum land-shape (aR=8.9;φ=161.7 deg)

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