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Research Papers: Air Emissions From Fossil Fuel Combustion

Investigation of Low Temperature Combustion Regimes of Biodiesel With N-Butanol Injected in the Intake Manifold of a Compression Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Brian Vlcek

Georgia Southern University,
Statesboro, GA 30460

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 10, 2013; final manuscript received February 4, 2013; published online May 31, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Timothy J. Jacobs.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(4), 041101 (May 31, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4023743 History: Received January 10, 2013; Revised February 04, 2013

In this study, the in-cylinder soot and NOx trade off was investigated in a compression engine by implementing premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) coupled with low temperature combustion (LTC) for selected regimes of 1–3 bars IMEP. In order to achieve that, an omnivorous (multifuel) single cylinder diesel engine was developed by injecting n-butanol in the intake port while being fueled with biodiesel by direct injection in the combustion chamber. By applying this methodology, the in-cylinder pressure decreased by 25% and peak pressure was delayed in the power stroke by about 8 CAD for the cycles in which the n-butanol was injected in the intake manifold at the engine speed of 800 rpm and low engine loads, corresponding to 1–3 bars IMEP. Compared with the baseline taken with ultra-low sulfur diesel no. 2 (USLD#2), the heat release presented a more complex shape. t 1–2 bars IMEP, the premixed charge stage of the combustion totally disappeared and a prolonged diffusion stage was found instead. At 3 bars IMEP, an early low temperature heat release was present that started 6 deg (1.25 ms) earlier than the diesel reference heat release with a peak at 350 CAD corresponding to 1200 K. Heat losses from radiation of burned gas in the combustion chamber decreased by 10–50% while the soot emissions showed a significant decrease of about 98%, concomitantly with a 98% NOx reduction at 1 IMEP, and 77% at 3 IMEP, by controlling the combustion phases. Gaseous emissions were measured using an AVL SESAM FTIR and showed that there were high increases in CO, HC and NMHC emissions as a result of PCCI/LTC strategy; nevertheless, the technology is still under development. The results of this work indicate that n-butanol an be a very promising fuel alternative including for LTC regimes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

LTC, PCCI, and HCCI regimes [8]

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Fig. 2

The experimental setup

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Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure at 800 rpm 1 bars IMEP

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Fig. 4

Apparent heat release rate at 800 rpm 3 bars IMEP

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Fig. 5

Cylinder gas temperature at 800 rpm 1 bars IMEP

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Fig. 6

Total heat flux at 800 rpm 1 bars IMEP

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Fig. 7

Heat transfer at 800 rpm 3 bars IMEP, B100C

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Fig. 8

Heat transfer at 800 rpm 3 bars IMEP, B100

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Fig. 9

Soot emissions at 800 rpm for various loads

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Fig. 10

NOx emissions at 800 rpm for various loads

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Fig. 11

Fueling strategies at constant load Soot–NOx trade-off at 800 rpm for 1–3 bars IMEP

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Fig. 12

Specific energy consumption at 800 rpm and various loads

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Fig. 13

Overall efficiency 800 rpm

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