Research Papers: Air Emissions From Fossil Fuel Combustion

Investigation of Low Temperature Combustion Regimes of Biodiesel With N-Butanol Injected in the Intake Manifold of a Compression Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Brian Vlcek

Georgia Southern University,
Statesboro, GA 30460

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 10, 2013; final manuscript received February 4, 2013; published online May 31, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Timothy J. Jacobs.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(4), 041101 (May 31, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4023743 History: Received January 10, 2013; Revised February 04, 2013

In this study, the in-cylinder soot and NOx trade off was investigated in a compression engine by implementing premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) coupled with low temperature combustion (LTC) for selected regimes of 1–3 bars IMEP. In order to achieve that, an omnivorous (multifuel) single cylinder diesel engine was developed by injecting n-butanol in the intake port while being fueled with biodiesel by direct injection in the combustion chamber. By applying this methodology, the in-cylinder pressure decreased by 25% and peak pressure was delayed in the power stroke by about 8 CAD for the cycles in which the n-butanol was injected in the intake manifold at the engine speed of 800 rpm and low engine loads, corresponding to 1–3 bars IMEP. Compared with the baseline taken with ultra-low sulfur diesel no. 2 (USLD#2), the heat release presented a more complex shape. t 1–2 bars IMEP, the premixed charge stage of the combustion totally disappeared and a prolonged diffusion stage was found instead. At 3 bars IMEP, an early low temperature heat release was present that started 6 deg (1.25 ms) earlier than the diesel reference heat release with a peak at 350 CAD corresponding to 1200 K. Heat losses from radiation of burned gas in the combustion chamber decreased by 10–50% while the soot emissions showed a significant decrease of about 98%, concomitantly with a 98% NOx reduction at 1 IMEP, and 77% at 3 IMEP, by controlling the combustion phases. Gaseous emissions were measured using an AVL SESAM FTIR and showed that there were high increases in CO, HC and NMHC emissions as a result of PCCI/LTC strategy; nevertheless, the technology is still under development. The results of this work indicate that n-butanol an be a very promising fuel alternative including for LTC regimes.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


United States Government, 2007, “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007,” Pub. L. 110-140.
Yoon, S. H., Park, S. H., Suh, H. K., and Lee, C. S., 2010, “Effect of Biodiesel-Ethanol Blended Fuel Spray Characteristics on the Reduction of Exhaust Emissions in a Common-Rail Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(4), p. 042201. [CrossRef]
Chokri, B., Ridha, E., Rachid, S., and Jamel, B., 2012, “Experimental Study of a Diesel Engine Performance Running on Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Blend,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(3), p. 032202. [CrossRef]
Sequera, A., Parthasarathy, R., and Gollahalli, S., 2011, “Effects of Fuel Injection Timing in the Combustion of Biofuels in a Diesel Engine at Partial Loads,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 133(2), p. 022203. [CrossRef]
Environmental Protection Agency, 2004, “Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines and Fuel; Final Rule,” Report No. 2060-AK27.
Togbe, C., Dayma, G., Mze-Ahmed, A., and Dagaut, P., 2010, “Experimental and Modeling Study of the Kinetics of Oxidation of Simple Biodiesel-Biobutanol Surrogates: Methyl Octanoate-Butanol Mixtures,” Energy Fuels, 24, pp. 3906–3916. [CrossRef]
Li, H., Stuart, N. W., Guo, H., and Chippior, W., 2012, “The NOx and N2O Emission Characteristics of an HCCI Engine Operated With n-Heptane,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(1), p. 011101. [CrossRef]
Neely, G. D., Shizuo, S., and Leet, J. A., 2004, “Experimental Investigation of PCCI DI Combustion on Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-0121.
Housbaa, H., Sary, A., Tazerout, M., and Liazid, A., 2012, “Investigations on a Compression Ignition Engine Using Animal Fats and Vegetable Oil as Fuels,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), p. 022202. [CrossRef]
Ramey, D., and Shang-Tian, Y., 2004, “Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass,” United States Department of Energy, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/843183.pdf
Pucher, H., and Sperling, E., 1986, “N-Butanol-Diesel Mixture as Alternative Fuel for Diesel Motors,” Erdol Kohle Erdgas Petrochem. 39(8), pp. 353–356.
Bunting, B. G., Eaton, S. J., Crawford, R. W., Xu, Y., Wolf, L. R., Kumar, S., Stanton, D., and Fang, H., “Performance of Biodiesel Blends of Different FAME Distributions in HCCI Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1342.
Conti, J. J., and Holtberg, P. D., 2011, “Annual Energy Outlook 2011 with Projections to 2035,” United States of America Department of Energy Information. Office of Integrated and International Energy Analysis. Available at http://www.eia.gov/neic/speeches/newell_12162010.pdf
Annand, W. J. D., and Ma, T. H., 1971, “Instantaneous Heat Transfer Rates to the Cylinder Head Surface of a Small Compression-Ignition Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 185, pp. 976–987. [CrossRef]
Soloiu, V., Lewis, J., Covington, A., Nelson, D., and Schmidt, N., 2011, “Oleic Methyl Ester Investigations in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine; Stage One: Combustion Investigations,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr.4(1), pp. 58–75.
Borman, G., and Nishiwaki, K., 1987, “Internal-Combustion Engine Heat-Transfer,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 13(1), pp. 1–46. [CrossRef]
Lyn, W., 1963, “Study of Burning Rate and Nature of Combustion in Diesel Engines,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. Ninth Symposium (International) on Combustion. Academic Press, New York, pp. 1069–1082.
Khan, I., Greeves, G., and Wang, C., 1973, “Factors Affecting Smoke and Gaseous Emissions from Direct Injection Engines and a Method of Calculation,” SAE Technical Paper No. 730169.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

LTC, PCCI, and HCCI regimes [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure at 800 rpm 1 bars IMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Apparent heat release rate at 800 rpm 3 bars IMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Cylinder gas temperature at 800 rpm 1 bars IMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Total heat flux at 800 rpm 1 bars IMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Heat transfer at 800 rpm 3 bars IMEP, B100C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Heat transfer at 800 rpm 3 bars IMEP, B100

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Soot emissions at 800 rpm for various loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

NOx emissions at 800 rpm for various loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Fueling strategies at constant load Soot–NOx trade-off at 800 rpm for 1–3 bars IMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Specific energy consumption at 800 rpm and various loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Overall efficiency 800 rpm



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In