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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction1

[+] Author and Article Information
Andreas A. Malikopoulos

Energy & Transportation Science Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Knoxville, TN 37932
e-mail: andreas@ornl.gov

This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the U.S. government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for U.S. government purposes.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received September 20, 2012; final manuscript received December 18, 2012; published online May 27, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Timothy J. Jacobs.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(4), 041201 (May 27, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-12-1213; doi: 10.1115/1.4023334 History: Received September 20, 2012; Revised December 18, 2012

Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PHEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pretransmission and post transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Japanese driving cycle

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Fig. 2

Norm of residuals of the polynomial metamodel for fuel economy versus the order of the polynomial

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Fig. 3

Norm of residuals of the polynomial metamodel for greenhouse gas emissions versus the order of the polynomial

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Fig. 4

Norm of residuals of the polynomial metamodel for an acceleration time of 0–30 mph versus the order of the polynomial

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Fig. 5

Norm of residuals of the polynomial metamodel for an acceleration time of 0–60 mph versus the order of the polynomial

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Fig. 6

Fuel economy variation in PHEV pretransmission configuration

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Fig. 7

Fuel economy variation in PHEV post transmission configuration

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Fig. 8

GHG emissions in PHEV pretransmission configuration

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Fig. 9

GHG emissions in PHEV post transmission configuration

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Fig. 10

Pareto frontier in PHEV pretransmission configuration

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Fig. 11

Optimal set of the motor/generator and battery size corresponding to the Pareto frontier in the PHEV pretransmission configuration

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Fig. 12

Pareto frontier in PHEV post transmission configuration

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Fig. 13

Optimal set of the motor/generator and battery size corresponding to the Pareto frontier in the PHEV post transmission configuration

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Fig. 14

Vehicle mass in kilograms (kg) for the PHEV pretransmission configuration

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Fig. 15

Vehicle mass in kilograms (kg) for the PHEV post transmission configuration

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