Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Comparing Energy and Cost Optimization in Distributed Energy Systems Management

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrea Luigi Facci

Department of Engineering,
University of Napoli “Parthenope”,
Centro Direzionale Isola C4,
Napoli 80143, Italy
e-mail: andrea.facci@uniparthenope.it

Luca Andreassi

Department Industrial Engineering,
University of Roma “Tor Vergata”,
Via del Politecnico 1,
Roma 00133, Italy
e-mail: luca.andreassi@uniroma2.it

Fabrizio Martini

Department of Engineering,
University of Napoli “Parthenope”,
Centro Direzionale Isola C4,
Napoli 80143, Italy
e-mail: fabrizio.martini@gmail.com

Stefano Ubertini

Industrial Engineering School,
Department of Economy and Enterprise (DEIM),
University of Tuscia,
Largo dell'Università,
Viterbo 01100, Italy
e-mail: stefano.ubertini@unitus.it

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 28, 2013; final manuscript received February 27, 2014; published online April 17, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Andrea Lazzaretto.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(3), 032001 (Apr 17, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1251; doi: 10.1115/1.4027155 History: Received August 28, 2013; Revised February 27, 2014

Distributed generation, despite not being a new concept, is assuming a leading role in the field of energy conversion, as it should contribute to the enhancement of efficiency, flexibility, and reliability of national energy systems. However, it also noted that the effective performances of small and flexible power plants is critically influenced by their actual control strategy. Moreover, it is not trivial to identify a univocal parameter to evaluate the plant performance. For instance, cost evaluation clearly responds to an industrial view of the energy supply problem, while energy consumption or polluting emissions comply with a socio economic approach. In this scenario, the optimization of the plant management is a valuable instrument to gain insight on their behavior as the control strategy is varied, as well as to promote the distributed generation development, by maximizing the plants performances. In this paper, we further develop a graph based optimization methodology to optimize the set-point of an internal combustion engine based plant used to satisfy a hospital energy load, under different seasonal load conditions (winter, summer, and transitional seasons) and energy prices. Specifically, in order to dissect the effects of the objective function selection, two different optimization criteria are considered, namely economical optimization and primary energy consumption minimization. In particular, we focus on the features of the prime mover (i.e., the internal combustion engine) control strategy and on its drivers, as a function of the prescribed objective function. Results demonstrate that in the actual Italian energy market, cost minimization does not match primary energy consumption minimization, because the latter is only influenced by energy demand time series, and equipments performance, while the former is fundamentally driven by the electricity prices time series.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Prasad, B. S., 2010, “Energy Efficiency, Sources and Sustainability,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(2), p. 020301. [CrossRef]
Burak Gunes, M., and Ellis, M., 2003, “Evaluation of Energy, Environmental, and Economic Characteristics and Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems for Residential Applications,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 125(3), pp. 208–220. [CrossRef]
Cullen, B., and McGovern, J., 2009, “The Quest for More Efficient Industrial Engines: A Review of Current Industrial Engine Development and Applications,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(2), p. 021601. [CrossRef]
Cardona, E., and Piacentino, A., 2007, “Optimal Design of CHCP Plants in the Civil Sector by Thermoeconomics,” Appl. Energy, 84(7–8), pp. 729–748. [CrossRef]
Doering, R., and Lin, B., 1979, “Optimum Operation of a Total Energy Plant,” Comput. Oper. Res., 6(1), pp. 33–38. [CrossRef]
Kong, X., Wang, R., Li, Y., and Huang, X., 2009, “Optimal Operation of a Micro-Combined Cooling, Heating and Power System Driven by a Gas Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50(3), pp. 530–538. [CrossRef]
Mařík, K., Schindler, Z., and Stluka, P., 2008, “Decision Support Tools for Advanced Energy Management,” Energy, 33(6), pp. 858–873. [CrossRef]
Kong, X., Wang, R., and Huang, X., 2005, “Energy Optimization Model for a CCHP System With Available Gas Turbines,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 25, pp. 377–391. [CrossRef]
Arivalagan, A., Raghavendra, B., and Rao, A., 1995, “Integrated Energy Optimization Model for a Cogeneration Based Energy Supply System in the Process Industry,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 17(4), pp. 227–233. [CrossRef]
Yokoyama, R., and Ito, K., 1999, “Optimal Operation of a Cogeneration Plant in Consideration of Equipment Startup/Shutdown Cost,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 121(4), pp. 254–261. [CrossRef]
Yun, K., Luck, R., Mago, P. J., and Smith, A., 2012, “Analytic Solutions for Optimal Power Generation Unit Operation in Combined Heating and Power Systems,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(1), p. 011301. [CrossRef]
Spakovsky, M.V., Curti, V., and Batato, M., 1995, “The Performance Optimization of a Gas Turbine Cogeneration/Heat Pump Facility With Thermal Storage,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 117(1), pp. 2–9. [CrossRef]
Frangopoulos, C., Lygeros, A., Markou, C., and Kaloritis, P., 1996, “Thermoeconomic Operation Optimization of the Hellenic Aspropyrgos Refinery Combined-Cycle Cogeneration System,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 16(12), pp. 949–958. [CrossRef]
Puttgen, H. B., and MacGregor, P. R., 1989, “Optimum Scheduling Procedure for Cogenerating Small Power Producing Facilities,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 4(3), pp. 957–964. [CrossRef]
Lozano, M., and Valero, A., 1993, “Theory of the Exergetic Cost,” Energy, 18(9), pp. 939–960. [CrossRef]
Temir, G., and Bilge, D., 2004, “Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Trigeneration System,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 24(17), pp. 2689–2699. [CrossRef]
Tstsaronis, G., and Pisa, J., 1994, “Exoergonomic Evaluation and Optimization of Energy Systems—Application to the CGAM Problem,” Energy, 24(19), pp. 287–321. [CrossRef]
Andreassi, L., Ciminelli, M., Feola, M., and Ubertini, S., 2009, “Innovative Method for Energy Management: Modelling and Optimal Operation of Energy Systems,” Energy Build., 41(4), pp. 436–444. [CrossRef]
Chinneck, J. W., 2006, “Practical Optimization: A Gentle Introduction” (Systems and Computer Engineering), Carleton University, Ottawa. http://www. sce. carleton. ca/faculty/chinneck/po.html
Dasgupta, S., Papadimitriou, C. H., and Vazirani, U. V., 2006, Algorithms, McGrow Hill, New York.
De, A. R., and Musgrove, L., 1988, “The Optimization of Hybrid Energy Conversion Systems Using the Dynamic Programming Model-Rapsody,” Int. J. Energy Res., 12(3), pp. 447–457. [CrossRef]
Fumarola, A., Tribioli, L., and Martini, F., 2011, “Methodology Procedure for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Design,” Proceedings of International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, SAE Conference, SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-24-0071.
Marano, V., Rizzo, G., and Tiano, F. A., 2012, “Application of Dynamic Programming to the Optimal Management of a Hybrid Power Plant With Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Panels and Compressed Air Energy Storage,” Appl. Energy, 97(0), pp. 849–859. [CrossRef]
Chiappini, D., Facci, A. L., Tribioli, L., and Ubertini, S., 2011, “SOFC Management in Distributed Energy Systems,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 8(3), p. 031015. [CrossRef]
Andreassi, L., and Ubertini, S., 2010, “Optimal Management of Power Systems,” Energy Management, Francisco Maria Perez, ed., Intech, Vukovar, Croatia.
Bella, G., Facci, A. L., Fumarola, A., Tribioli, L., and Ubertini, S., 2011, “Comparison Among Different CCHP Plant Configurations With Energy Flows Optimization,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Applied Energy.
Gestore del Mercato Elettrico, “Fonti Rinnovabili: Guida Alla Vendita dell'energia ed al Mercato Degli Incentivi,” In Italian, April 2013, www.mercatoelettrico.org
AEEG, 2008, “Il”Ritiro dedicato” Dell'energia Elettrica Prodotta da Impianti Fino a 10 MVA e da Impianti Alimentati da Fonti Rinnovabili Non Programmabili: La Delibera n. 280/07,” In Italian, www.autorita.energia.it
Li, C., Shi, Y., and Huang, X., 2008, “Sensitivity Analysis of Energy Demands on Performance of CCHP System,” Energy Convers. Manage., 49(12), pp. 3491–3497. [CrossRef]
Gestore Mercati Energetici, 2013, “Esiti MGP Prezzi,” http://www.mercatoelettrico.org/It/Esiti/MGP/EsitiMGP.aspx
Onovwiona, H., and Ugursal, V., 2006, “Residential Cogeneration Systems: Review of the Current Technology,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 10(5), pp. 389–431. [CrossRef]
Fabrizio, E., Filippi, M., and Virgone, J., 2009, “An Hourly Modelling Framework for the Assessment of Energy Sources Exploitation and Energy Converters Selection and Sizing in Buildings,” Energy Build., 41(10), pp. 1037–1050. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of a CHCP plant components with energy and mass fluxes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the graph representation of the problem

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Energy demand time series [29]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Time series of the electricity price sold to the grid [30]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic flow sheet of the plant under consideration with energy and mass fluxes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Efficiency curves for all the plant components

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Internal combustion engine derating curves [33], as function of altitude and temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Set-points that minimize the PEC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Set-points that minimizes the total daily cost




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In