Research Papers: Co-generation/Systems

Boilers Optimal Control for Maximum Load Change Rate

[+] Author and Article Information
Moustafa Elshafei, Iyad Al-Zaharnah, Medhat A. Nemitallah

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Mohamed A. Habib

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mahabib@kfupm.edu.sa

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 25, 2012; final manuscript received April 19, 2014; published online May 13, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Mansour Zenouzi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(3), 031301 (May 13, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-12-1216; doi: 10.1115/1.4027563 History: Received September 25, 2012; Revised April 19, 2014

In many cogeneration systems, one or more boilers are used in hot standby to meet the plant demand of steam in case of failure or upset in the cogeneration unit. Such boilers need to quickly respond to sudden and large steam load changes. However, fast changes in the firing rate cause transient changes in both the drum-boiler steam pressure and drum level, in addition to the potential of developing of thermal stresses in the walls of steam risers. A genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization scheme is proposed for tuning the conventional boiler control loops to maximize the ability of the boiler to respond to large steam demand while keeping the fluctuations in pressure, drum level, and feed rate within acceptable operation limits. A nonlinear model for an actual boiler is first built, validated, and then, it is used to demonstrate the performance of the boiler with the proposed control loop optimization.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Parry, A., Peterot, J. F., and Vivier, M. J., 1985, “Recent Progress in SG Level Control in French PWR Plants,” Proceedings of International Conference on Boiler Dynamics and Control in Nuclear Powerstations, pp. 81–88.
Astrom, K. J., and Eklund, K., 1972, “A Simplified Non-Linear Model of a Drum Boiler-Turbine Unit,” Int. J. Control, 16, pp. 145–169. [CrossRef]
Astrom, K. J., and Bell, R. D., 1988, “Simple Drum-Boiler Models,” IFAC Power Systems Modelling and Control Applications, pp. 123–127.
de Mello, F. P., 1991, “Boiler Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 6, pp. 66–74. [CrossRef]
Peet, W. J., and Leung, T. K. P., 1995, “Development and Application of a Dynamic Simulation Model for a Drum Type Boiler With Turbine Bypass System,” International Power Engineering Conference, pp. 1–6.
Astrom, K. J., and Bell, R. D., 1996, “A Fourth Order Non-Linear Model for Drum-Boiler Dynamics,” 13th Triennial World Congress, pp. 31–36.
Flynn, M. E., and O'Malley, M. J., 1999, “A Drum Boiler Model for Long Term Power System Dynamic Simulation,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 14, pp. 209–217. [CrossRef]
Astrom, K. J., and Bell, R. D., 2000, “Drum—Boiler Dynamics,” Automatica, 36, pp. 363–378. [CrossRef]
Dong, Y., and Tingkuan, C., 2001, “HGSSP-A Computer Program for Simulation of Once-Through Boiler Start-Up Behavior,” Heat Transfer Eng., 22(5), pp. 50–60. [CrossRef]
Kim, H., and Choi, S., 2005, “A Model on Water Level Dynamics in Natural Circulation Drum-Type Boilers,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 32, pp. 786–796. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y., Li, N., Shi, Y., and Yi, Y., 2006, “Genetic Adaptive Control for Drum Level of a Power Plant Boiler,” IMACS Multiconference on Computational Engineering in Systems Applications, pp. 1965–1968.
Dimeo, R., and Lee, K. Y., 1995, “Boiler-Turbine Control System Design Using a Genetic Algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 10, pp. 752–759. [CrossRef]
Pellegrinetti, G., and Bentsman, J., 1996, “Nonlinear Control Oriented Boiler Modeling-a Benchmark Problem for Controller Design,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 4, pp. 57–64. [CrossRef]
Pedersen, T. S., Hansen, T., and Hangstrup, M., 1996, “Process-Optimizing Multivariable Control of a Boiler System,” Control '96, UKACC International Conference on (Conf. Publ. No. 427), Vol. 2, pp. 787–792.
Cheng, C. M., and Rees, N. W., 1997, “Hierarchical and Heuristical Fuzzy Model Based Control of Drum-Boiler Power Plant,” Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 629–634.
Kai-Pong, C., and Li-Xin, W., 1998, “Comparison of Fuzzy and PI Controllers for a Benchmark Drum-Boiler Model,” Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Vol. 2, pp. 958–962.
Lu, C. X., Rees, N. W., and Donaldson, S. C., 2000, “The Use of the Astrom Bell Model for the Design of Drum Level Controllers in Power Plant Boilers,” Energy Australia, Sydney.
Yang, P., Peng, D. G., Yang, Y. H., and Wang, Z. P., 2004, “Neural Networks Internal Model Control for Water Level of Boiler Drum in Power Station,” Proceedings of 2004 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Vol. 5, pp. 3300–3303.
Daren, Y., and Zhiqiang, X., 2005, “Nonlinear Coordinated Control of Drum Boiler Power Unit Based on Feedback Linearization,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 20(1), pp. 204–210. [CrossRef]
Wang, W., Li, H. X., and Zhang, J., 2002, “Intelligence-Based Hybrid Control for Power Plant Boiler,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 10, pp. 280–287. [CrossRef]
Tan, W., Marquez, H. J., and Chen, T., 2002, “Multivariable Robust Controller Design for a Boiler System,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 10, pp. 735–742. [CrossRef]
Nanhua, Y., Wentong, M., and Ming, S., 2006, “Application of Adaptive Grey Predictor Based Algorithm to Boiler Drum Level Control,” Energy Convers. Manage., 47, pp. 2999–3007.
Aranda, E., Frye, M., and Chunjiang, Q., 2008, “Model Development, State Estimation, and Controller Design of a Nonlinear Utility Boiler System,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2008, pp. 1–6.
Wen, C., and Ydstie, B. E., 2009, “Passivity Based Control of Drum Boiler,” American Control Conference, ACC '09, pp. 1586–1591.
Kruger, K., Rode, M., and Franke, R., 2001, “Optimal Control for Fast Boiler Start-Up Based on a Non-Linear Model and Considering the Thermal Stress on Thick-Walled Components,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Mexico City, Mexico, Sept. 5–7, pp. 570–576.
Kruger, K., Franke, R., and Rode, M., 2004, “Optimization of Boiler Start-Up Using a Nonlinear Boiler Model and Hard Constraints,” Energy, 29, pp. 2239–2251. [CrossRef]
Franke, R., Rode, M., and Krüger, K., 2003, “On-Line Optimization of Drum Boiler Startup,” Proceedings of 3rd International Modelica Conference, P.Fritzson, ed., Linköping, Nov. 3–4, pp. 287–296.
Li, B., Chen, T., and Yang, D., 2005, “DBSSP-A Computer Program for Simulation of Controlled Circulation Boiler and Natural Circulation Boiler Start Up Behavior,” Energy Convers. Manage., 46, pp. 533–549. [CrossRef]
Habib, M. A., Alzaharnah, I., El-Shafei, M., Al-Anizi, S., Al-Awwad, M. Y., and Hajji, M., 2013, “Influence of Boiler Load Swing Rates on Response of Drum Water Level,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135( 2), p. 022904. [CrossRef]
Ilamathi, P., Selladurai, V., and Balamurugan, K., 2013, “Modeling and Optimization of Unburned Carbon in Coal-Fired Boiler Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm,” Energy Resour. Technol., 135( 3), p. 032201. [CrossRef]
Jain, V., Basu, P., and Groulx, D., 2010, “A Method for Reduction in the Start-Up Time of a Bubbling Bed Boiler Combustor,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132( 3), p. 031401. [CrossRef]
Gowreesh, S., Estrada, J., Ong, C. K., and Xiao, T. K., 2011, “Experimental Investigation of Boiler Pressure Behavior in Closed-Open-Closed System,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 133( 2), p. 024501. [CrossRef]
Cho, H., Luck, R., and Chamra, L. M., 2010, “Supervisory Feed-Forward Control for Real-Time Topping Cycle CHP Operation,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132( 1), p. 012401. [CrossRef]
Habib, M. A., 2009, “Determination of Maximum Boiler Swing Rates,” King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Final Report, Project# ME2277, R1.
Holland, J. H., 1975, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Goldberg, D. E., 1989, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, Boston, MA.
Mitchell, M., 1996, An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Al-Zaharnah, I., Al-Anizi, S., Al-Awwad, M. Y., Habib, M. A., Said, S. A. M., El-Shafei, M., Hajji, M., and Merah, N., 2010, “Influence of Boiler Load Swing Rates on Effective Stresses of Drum Boiler Riser Tubes,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 132( 6), p. 61301. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A cogeneration unit using gas turbine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a drum boiler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Three elements boiler water level control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Boiler control loops; (a) drum pressure control and (b) water level control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Simulated model results versus actual responses of the boiler for different operating parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Performance of the boiler before and after optimization of the control system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between the actual and simulated results for both the drum level (left), and the feed water flow rate (right)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In