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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Experimental Investigations of Particulate Size and Number Distribution in an Ethanol and Methanol Fueled HCCI Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Rakesh Kumar Maurya

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akag@iitk.ac.in

1Present address: School of Mechanical, Materials and Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, India.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 9, 2013; final manuscript received June 19, 2014; published online July 29, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Timothy J. Jacobs.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(1), 012201 (Jul 29, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1231; doi: 10.1115/1.4027897 History: Received August 09, 2013; Revised June 19, 2014

Alcohols (ethanol and methanol) are being widely considered as alternative fuels for automotive applications. At the same time, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine has attracted global attention due to its potential of providing high engine efficiency and ultralow exhaust emissions. Environmental legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, sharply focusing on particulate matter (PM) emissions. Recent emission norms consider limiting PM number concentrations in addition to PM mass. Therefore, present study is conducted to experimentally investigate the effects of engine operating parameters on the PM size–number distribution in a HCCI engine fueled with gasoline, ethanol, and methanol. The experiments were conducted on a modified four-cylinder diesel engine, with one cylinder modified to operate in HCCI mode. Port fuel injection was used for preparing homogeneous charge in the HCCI cylinder. Intake air preheating was used to enable auto-ignition of fuel–air mixture. Engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used for measuring size–number distribution of soot particles emitted by the HCCI engine cylinder under varying engine operating conditions. Experiments were conducted at 1200 and 2400 rpm by varying intake air temperature and air–fuel ratio for gasoline, ethanol, and methanol. In this paper, the effect of engine operating parameters on PM size–number distribution, count mean diameter (CMD), and total PM numbers is investigated. The experimental data show that the PM number emissions from gasoline, ethanol, and methanol in HCCI cannot be neglected and particle numbers increase for relatively richer mixtures and higher intake air temperatures.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 2

HCCI operating range for gasoline, ethanol, and methanol

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Fig. 3

Particle size–number distributions for gasoline HCCI combustion with varying intake temperature and λ

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Fig. 4

Particle size–number distributions for ethanol HCCI combustion with varying intake temperature and λ

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Fig. 5

Particle size–number distributions for methanol HCCI combustion with varying intake temperature and λ

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Fig. 6

Variation of total number concentration of particles at (a) 1200 rpm (b) 2400 rpm for gasoline

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Fig. 7

Variation of total number concentration of particles at (a) 1200 rpm (b) 2400 rpm for ethanol

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Fig. 8

Variation of total number concentration of particles at (a) 1200 rpm (b) 2400 rpm for methanol

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Fig. 9

Variation of total concentration of particles with CMD for gasoline, ethanol, and methanol

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Fig. 10

Variation of total mass of particles with MMD for gasoline, ethanol, and methanol

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