0
Research Papers: Air Emissions From Fossil Fuel Combustion

Combustion and Emission Characterization of n-Butanol Fueled HCCI Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Rakesh Kumar Maurya

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akag@iitk.ac.in

1Present address: School of Mechanical Materials and Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, India.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 11, 2013; final manuscript received June 19, 2014; published online July 29, 2014. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(1), 011101 (Jul 29, 2014) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1318; doi: 10.1115/1.4027898 History: Received November 11, 2013; Revised June 19, 2014

Biofuels are attracting global attention as alternate transportation fuels due to advantages of their being produced from locally available renewable resources, lower pollution potential, and biodegradable nature. Butanol is fast emerging as one of the competitive biofuels for use in transportation engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines have shown great potential for higher engine efficiency and ultralow NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. This experimental study is therefore carried out to combine the advantages of biofuels and HCCI engines, both. Detailed performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of n-butanol fueled HCCI engine are investigated experimentally. The study is conducted on a four cylinder diesel engine, whose one cylinder was modified to operate in HCCI combustion mode. Port fuel injection technique was used for homogeneous charge preparation in the intake manifold. Auto-ignition of fuel in the engine cylinder was achieved by intake air preheating. In-cylinder pressure-crank angle data acquisition with subsequent heat release analyses and exhaust emission measurements were done for combustion and emission characterization. In this paper, the effect of intake air temperature and air–fuel ratio on the combustion parameters, thermal and combustion efficiency, ringing intensity (RI), and emissions from n-butanol fueled HCCI engine were analyzed and discussed comprehensively. Empirical correlations were derived to fit the experimental data for various combustion parameters.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Jin, C., Yao, M., Liu, H., Lee, C. F., and Ji, J., 2011, “Progress in the Production and Application of n-Butanol as a Biofuel,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(8), pp. 4080–4106. [CrossRef]
Hansen, A. C., Zhang, Q., and Lyne, P. W. L., 2005, “Ethanol–Diesel Fuel Blends–A Review,” Bioresour. Technol., 96(3), pp. 277–285. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hansen, A. C., Kyritsis, D. C., and Lee, C. F., 2009, “Characteristics of Biofuels and Renewable Fuel Standards,” Biomass to Biofuels–Strategies for Global Industries, A. A.Vertes, H. P.Blaschek, H.Yukawa, and N.Qureshi, eds., Wiley, NY.
Maurya, R. K., and Agarwal, A. K., 2011, “Experimental Study of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Ethanol Fuelled Port Injected Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion Engine,” Appl. Energy, 88(4), pp. 1169–1180. [CrossRef]
Fortman, J. L., Chhabra, S., Mukhopadhyay, A., Chou, H., Lee, T. S., Steen, E., and Keasling, J. D., 2008, “Biofuel Alternatives to Ethanol: Pumping the Microbial Well,” Trends Biotechnol., 26(7), pp. 375–381. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ezejia, T. C., Qureshib, N., and Blascheka, H. P., 2005, “Continuous Butanol Fermentation and Feed Starch Retrogradation: Butanol Fermentation Sustainability Using Clostridium Beijerinckii BA101,” J. Biotechnol., 115(2), pp. 179–187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Maurya, R. K., and Agarwal, A. K., 2009, “Experimental Investigation of the Effect of the Intake Air Temperature and Mixture Quality on the Combustion of a Methanol and Gasoline Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 223(11), pp. 1445–1458. [CrossRef]
Aceves, S. M., Martinez-Frias, J., and Reistad, G. M., 2006, “Analysis of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines for Cogeneration Applications,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 128(1), pp. 16–27. [CrossRef]
Maurya, R. K., and Agarwal, A. K., 2012, “Statistical Analysis of Cyclic Variation of Heat Release Parameters in HCCI Combustion of Methanol and Gasoline Fuel,” Appl. Energy, 89(1), pp. 228–236. [CrossRef]
Li, H., Neill, W. S., and Chippior, W. L., 2012, “An Experimental Investigation of HCCI Combustion Stability Using n-Heptane,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), p. 022204. [CrossRef]
Soloiu, V., Duggan, M., Ochieng, H., Williams, D., Molina, G., and Vlcek, B., 2013, “Investigation of Low Temperature Combustion Regimes of Biodiesel With n-Butanol Injected in the Intake Manifold of a Compression Ignition Engine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135(4), p. 041101. [CrossRef]
El-Din, H., Elkelawy, M., and Yu-Sheng, Z., 2010, “HCCI Engines Combustion of CNG Fuel With DME and H2 Additives,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-1473.
Jang, J., Yang, K., and Bae, C., 2009, “The Effect of Injection Location of DME and LPG in a Dual Fuel HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1847. [CrossRef]
Maurya, R. K., and Agarwal, A. K., 2011, “Experimental Investigations of Gasoline HCCI Engine During Startup and Transients,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-2445. [CrossRef]
Yan, Y., Yu-Sheng, Z., Yong-Tian, C., Zu-Di, C., and Ge, X., 2010, “Study on HCCI Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled With Methanol/DME,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-0578. [CrossRef]
Gérard, D., Besson, M., Hardy, J., Croguennec, S., Thomine, M., Aoyama, S., and Tomita, M., 2008, “HCCI Combustion on a Diesel VCR Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-1187. [CrossRef]
Lu, X., Han, D., and Huang, Z., 2011, “Fuel Design and Management for the Control of Advanced Compression-Ignition Combustion Modes,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 37(6), pp. 741–783. [CrossRef]
Regalbuto, C., Pennisi, M., Wigg, B., and Kyritsis, D., 2012, “Experimental Investigation of Butanol Isomer Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-1271. [CrossRef]
Wigg, B., Coverdill, R., Lee, C., and Kyritsis, D., 2011, “Emissions Characteristics of Neat Butanol Fuel Using a Port Fuel-Injected, Spark-Ignition Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-0902. [CrossRef]
Szwaja, S., and Naber, J. D., 2010, “Combustion of n-Butanol in a Spark-Ignition IC Engine,” Fuel, 89(7), pp. 1573–1582. [CrossRef]
Yang, J., Wang, Y., and Feng, R., 2011, “The Performance Analysis of an Engine Fueled With Butanol-Gasoline Blend,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-1191. [CrossRef]
Yang, J., Yang, X., Liu, J., Han, Z., and Zhong, Z., 2009, “Dyno Test Investigations of Gasoline Engine Fueled With Butanol-Gasoline Blends,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1891. [CrossRef]
Chen, G., Yu, W., Li, Q., and Huang, Z., 2012, “Effects of n-Butanol Addition on the Performance and Emissions of a Turbocharged Common-Rail Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0852.
Miers, S., Carlson, R., McConnell, S., Ng, H., Wallner, T., and Esper, J., 2008, “Drive Cycle Analysis of Butanol/Diesel Blends in a Light-Duty Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-2381. [CrossRef]
Zoldy, M., Hollo, A., and Thernesz, A., 2010, “Butanol as a Diesel Extender Option for Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-0481. [CrossRef]
Yamamoto, S., Agui, Y., Kawaharada, N., Ueki, H., Sakaguchi, D., and Ishida, M., 2012, “Comparison of Diesel Combustion Between Ethanol and Butanol Blended With Gas Oil,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-32-0020. [CrossRef]
Gu, X. L., Huang, Z. H., Cai, J., Gong, J., Wu, X. S., and Lee, C. F., 2012, “Emission Characteristics of a Spark-Ignition Engine Fuelled With Gasoline-n-Butanol Blends in Combination With EGR,” Fuel, 93, pp. 611–617. [CrossRef]
Chotwichien, A., Luengnaruemitchai, A., and Jai-In, S., 2009, “Utilization of Palm Oil Alkyl Esters as an Additive in Ethanol-Diesel and Butanol-Diesel Blends,” Fuel, 88(9), pp. 1618–1624. [CrossRef]
Liu, H. F., Lee, C. F., Huo, M., and Yao, M. F., 2011, “Combustion Characteristics and Soot Distributions of Neat Butanol and Neat Soybean Biodiesel,” Energy Fuels, 25(7), pp. 3192–3203. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Q., Yao, M., Zheng, Z., Liu, H., and Xu, J., 2012, “Experimental Study of n-Butanol Addition on Performance and Emissions With Diesel Low Temperature Combustion,” Energy, 47(1), pp. 515–521. [CrossRef]
Maurya, R. K., and Agarwal, A. K., 2013, “Digital Signal Processing of Cylinder Pressure Data for Combustion Diagnostics of HCCI Engine,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process., 13(1), pp. 95–109. [CrossRef]
Maurya, R. K., and Agarwal, A. K., 2013, “Investigations on the Effect of Measurement Errors on Estimated Combustion and Performance Parameters in HCCI Combustion Engine,” Measurement, 46(1), pp. 80–88. [CrossRef]
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw Hill, NY.
Gatowski, J. A., Balles, E. N., Chun, K. M., Nelson, F. E., Ekchian, J. A., and Heywood, F. B., 1984, “A Heat Release Analysis of Engine Pressure Data,” SAE Technical Paper No. 841359. [CrossRef]
Soyhan, H. S., Yasar, H., Walmsley, H., Head, B., Kalghatgi, G. T., and Sorusbay, C., 2009, “Evaluation of Heat Transfer Correlations for HCCI Engine Modelling,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(2–3), pp. 541–549. [CrossRef]
Eng, J., 2002, “Characterization of Pressure Waves in HCCI Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2002-01-2859. [CrossRef]
Christensen, M., Hultqvist, A., and Johansson, B., 1999, “Demonstrating the Multi Fuel Capability of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine With Variable Compression Ratio,” SAE Technical Paper No. 1999-01-3679. [CrossRef]
Iida, N., 2007, “Natural Gas HCCI Engines,” in HCCI and CAI Engines for the Automotive Industry, H.Zhao, ed., Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
Johansson, T., Borgqvist, P., Johansson, B., Tunestal, P., and Aulin, H., 2010, “HCCI Heat Release Data for Combustion Simulation, Based on Results From a Turbocharged Multi Cylinder Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-1490. [CrossRef]
Johansson, T., Johansson, B., Tunestål, P., and Aulin, H., 2009, “HCCI Operating Range in a Turbo-Charged Multi Cylinder Engine With VVT and Spray-Guided DI,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-0494. [CrossRef]
Shahbakhti, M., Ghazimirsaied, A., and Koch, C. R., 2010, “Experimental Study of Exhaust Temperature Variation in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 224, pp. 1177–1197. [CrossRef]
Christensen, M., Johansson, B., and Einewall, P., 1997, “Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Using Isooctane, Ethanol and Natural Gas - A Comparison With Spark Ignition Operation,” SAE Technical Paper No. 972874.
Christensen, M., and Johansson, B., 1999, “Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition With Water Injection,” SAE Technical Paper No. 1999-01-0182. [CrossRef]
Yeom, K., and Bae, C., 2009, “Knock Characteristics in Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)-Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Gasoline-DME Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines,” Energy Fuels, 23(4), pp. 1956–1964. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, A. K., and Dhar, A., 2010, “Comparative Performance, Emission, and Combustion Characteristics of Rice-Bran Oil and Its Biodiesel in a Transportation Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(6), p. 064503. [CrossRef]
Shi, X., Yu, Y., He, H., Shuai, S., Wang, J., and Li, R., 2005, “Emission Characteristics Using Methyl Soyate–Ethanol–Diesel Fuel Blends on a Diesel Engine,” Fuel, 84(9), pp. 1543–1549. [CrossRef]
Shi, X., Pang, X., Mu, Y., He, H., Shuai, S., Wang, J., Chen, H., and Li, R., 2006, “Emission Reduction Potential of Using Ethanol–Biodiesel–Diesel Fuel Blend on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” Atmos. Environ., 40(14), pp. 2567–2574. [CrossRef]
Di, Y., Cheung, C. S., and Huang, Z., 2009, “Comparison of the Effect of Biodiesel-Diesel and Ethanol-Diesel on the Gaseous Emission of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine,” Atmos. Environ., 43(17), pp. 2721–2730. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. H., Cheung, C. S., Chan, T. L., and Yao, C. D., 2009, “Emission Reduction From Diesel Engine Using Fumigation Methanol and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst,” Sci. Total Environ., 407(15), pp. 4497–4505. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhua, L., Cheung, C. S., Zhang, W. G., and Huang, Z., 2011, “Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled With Ethanol Biodiesel Blends,” Fuel, 90(5), pp. 1743–1750. [CrossRef]
Mani, M., Subash, C., and Nagarajan, G., 2009, “Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Using Waste Plastic Oil,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(13), pp. 2738–2744. [CrossRef]
Geo, V. E., Nagarajan, G., and Nagalingam, B., 2010, “Studies on Improving the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Fuel for Diesel Engine With DEE Port Injection,” Fuel, 89(11), pp. 3559–3567. [CrossRef]
Yoon, S. H., and Lee, C. S., 2011, “Effect of Biofuels Combustion on the Nanoparticle and Emission Characteristics of a Common-Rail DI Diesel Engine,” Fuel, 90(10), pp. 3071–3077. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of method for determination of HCCI operating range

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

HCCI operating range for gasoline at (a) 1200 rpm (b) 2400 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

HCCI operating range for n-butanol at (a) 1200 rpm (b) 2400 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of HCCI operating range for gasoline and n-butanol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of IMEP with (a) λ (b) fuel energy per cycle for n-butanol HCCI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of predicted and experimental IMEP for gasoline and n-butanol HCCI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of λ on combustion efficiency for gasoline and n-butanol HCCI at different intake air temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of combustion efficiency in HCCI operating range for n-butanol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of λ and Ti on gross indicated thermal efficiency of gasoline and n-butanol HCCI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Variation of ISFC in HCCI operating range for gasoline and n-butanol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Variation of RI with λ and Ti for gasoline and n-butanol HCCI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effect of combustion phasing on RI for gasoline HCCI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Effect of combustion phasing (CA50) on NOx emissions for different λ for gasoline HCCI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

NOx emissions in HCCI operating range for gasoline and n-butanol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Variation of THC emissions in HCCI operating range for gasoline and n-butanol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Variation of CO emissions in HCCI operating range for gasoline and n-butanol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Effect of IMEP and Ti on CO emissions from gasoline HCCI

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In