Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Near-Critical CO2 Flow Measurement and Visualization

[+] Author and Article Information
Farzan Kazemifar

Department of Mechanical Science & Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign,
Urbana, IL 61801
International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy
Research (WPI-I2CNER),
Kyushu University,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e-mail: kazemif1@illinois.edu

Dimitrios C. Kyritsis

Department of Mechanical Science & Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign,
Urbana, IL 61801
International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy
Research (WPI-I2CNER),
Kyushu University,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research,
PO Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, UAE
e-mail: kyritsis@illinois.edu

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 22, 2013; final manuscript received June 24, 2014; published online August 1, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gunnar Tamm.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(1), 012002 (Aug 01, 2014) (5 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1219; doi: 10.1115/1.4027961 History: Received July 22, 2013; Revised June 24, 2014

Near-critical CO2 flow has been studied because of its potential application in carbon dioxide capture and sequestration, which is one of the proposed solutions for reducing greenhouse gas emission. Near the critical point the thermophysical properties of the fluid undergo abrupt changes that affect the flow structure and characteristics. Pressure drop across a stainless steel tube, 2 ft long with 0.084 in. ID, at different inlet conditions and mass flow rates have been measured. The effects of variations of inlet conditions have been studied. The results show extreme sensitivity of pressure drop to inlet conditions especially inlet temperature in the vicinity of the critical point. Also, shadowgraphs have been acquired to study the flow structure qualitatively.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


“U.S. Energy Information Administration | Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009,” Report Number: DOE/IEA-0573(2009), 2011.
“U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release Overview,” Report Number: DOE/IEA-0383ER (2013).
“U.S. Energy Information Administration | Electric Power Annual 2011,” accessed: Apr. 24, 2014, available: http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/archive/2011/pdf/epa.pdf
Haszeldine, R. S., 2009, “Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?,” Science, 325(5948), pp. 1647–1652. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ciferno, J. P., Fout, T. E., Jones, A. P., and Murphy, J. T., 2009, “Capturing Carbon From Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 105(4), pp. 33–41.
Orr, F. M., Jr., 2009, “CO2 Capture and Storage: Are We Ready?,” Energy Environ. Sci., 2(5), pp. 449–458. [CrossRef]
Seo, J. G., and Mamora, D. D., 2005, “Experimental and Simulation Studies of Sequestration of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Depleted Gas Reservoirs,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 127(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Lorentzen, G., and Pettersen, J., 1993, “A New, Efficient and Environmentally Benign System for Car Air-Conditioning,” Int. J. Refrig., 16(1), pp. 4–12. [CrossRef]
Robinson, D. M., and Groll, E. A., 1998, “Efficiencies of Transcritical CO2 Cycles With and Without an Expansion Turbine,” Int. J. Refrig., 21(7), pp. 577–589. [CrossRef]
Lorentzen, G., “Revival of Carbon Dioxide as a Refrigerant,” Int. J. Refrig., 17(5), pp. 292–301. [CrossRef]
Liao, S. M., and Zhao, T. S., 2002, “Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Flowing in Horizontal Mini/Micro Channels,” Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. J. Heat Transf., 124(3), pp. 413–420. [CrossRef]
Bae, Y.-Y., and Kim, H.-Y., 2009, “Convective Heat Transfer to CO2 at a Supercritical Pressure Flowing Vertically Upward in Tubes and an Annular Channel,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 33(2), pp. 329–339. [CrossRef]
Bae, Y.-Y., Kim, H.-Y., and Kang, D.-J., 2010, “Forced and Mixed Convection Heat Transfer to Supercritical CO2 Vertically Flowing in a Uniformly-Heated Circular Tube,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 34(8), pp. 1295–1308. [CrossRef]
Zhang, C., Oostrom, M., Grate, J. W., Wietsma, T. W., and Warner, M. G., 2011, “Liquid CO2 Displacement of Water in a Dual-Permeability Pore Network Micromodel,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 45(17), pp. 7581–7588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wang, Y., Zhang, C., Wei, N., Oostrom, M., Wietsma, T. W., Li, X., and Bonneville, A., 2013, “Experimental Study of Crossover From Capillary to Viscous Fingering for Supercritical CO2-Water Displacement in a Homogeneous Pore Network,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 47(1), pp. 212–218. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Perrin, J.-C., and Benson, S., 2009, “An Experimental Study on the Influence of Sub-Core Scale Heterogeneities on CO2 Distribution in Reservoir Rocks,” Transp. Porous Media, 82(1), pp. 93–109. [CrossRef]
Zuo, L., Zhang, C., Falta, R. W., and Benson, S. M., 2013, “Micromodel Investigations of CO2 Exsolution From Carbonated Water in Sedimentary Rocks,” Adv. Water Resour., 53, pp. 188–197. [CrossRef]
Zuo, L., Krevor, S., Falta, R. W., and Benson, S. M., 2011, “An Experimental Study of CO2 Exsolution and Relative Permeability Measurements During CO2 Saturated Water Depressurization,” Transp. Porous Media, 91(2), pp. 459–478. [CrossRef]
Herring, A. L., Harper, E. J., Andersson, L., Sheppard, A., Bay, B. K., and Wildenschild, D., 2013, “Effect of Fluid Topology on Residual Nonwetting Phase Trapping: Implications for Geologic CO2 Sequestration,” Adv. Water Resour., 62, pp. 47–58. [CrossRef]
Wildenschild, D., and Sheppard, A. P., 2013, “X-Ray Imaging and Analysis Techniques for Quantifying Pore-Scale Structure and Processes in Subsurface Porous Medium Systems,” Adv. Water Resour., 51, pp. 217–246. [CrossRef]
Mohamed, I. M., He, J., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A., 2012, “Experimental Analysis of CO2 Injection on Permeability of Vuggy Carbonate Aquifers,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135(1), p. 013301. [CrossRef]
Sasaki, K., Fujii, T., Niibori, Y., Ito, T., and Hashida, T., 2008, “Numerical Simulation of Supercritical CO2 Injection Into Subsurface Rock Masses,” Energy Convers. Manage., 49(1), pp. 54–61. [CrossRef]
Pruess, K., and García, J., 2002, “Multiphase Flow Dynamics During CO2 Disposal Into Saline Aquifers,” Environ. Geol., 42(2–3), pp. 282–295. [CrossRef]
Pruess, K., and Nordbotten, J., 2011, “Numerical Simulation Studies of the Long-Term Evolution of a CO2 Plume in a Saline Aquifer With a Sloping Caprock,” Transp. Porous Media, 90(1), pp. 135–151. [CrossRef]
Law, D. H.-S., and Bachu, S., 1996, “Hydrogeological and Numerical Analysis of CO2 Disposal in Deep Aquifers in the Alberta Sedimentary Basin,” Energy Convers. Manage., 37(6–8), pp. 1167–1174. [CrossRef]
Bandara, U. C., Tartakovsky, A. M., and Palmer, B. J., 2011, “Pore-Scale Study of Capillary Trapping Mechanism During CO2 Injection in Geological Formations,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 5(6), pp. 1566–1577. [CrossRef]
Lengler, U., De Lucia, M., and Kühn, M., 2010, “The Impact of Heterogeneity on the Distribution of CO2: Numerical Simulation of CO2 Storage at Ketzin,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 4(6), pp. 1016–1025. [CrossRef]
Uddin, M., Coombe, D., and Wright, F., 2008, “Modeling of CO2-Hydrate Formation in Geological Reservoirs by Injection of CO2 Gas,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 130(3), p. 032502. [CrossRef]
Uddin, M., Coombe, D., Law, D., and Gunter, B., 2008, “Numerical Studies of Gas Hydrate Formation and Decomposition in a Geological Reservoir,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 130(3), p. 032501. [CrossRef]
Daneshfar, J., Hughes, R. G., and Civan, F., 2009, “Feasibility Investigation and Modeling Analysis of CO2 Sequestration in Arbuckle Formation Utilizing Salt Water Disposal Wells,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(2), p. 023301. [CrossRef]
Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Poling, B. E., 1987, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Clifford, T., 1999, Fundamentals of Supercritical Fluids, Oxford University, New York.
Kurganov, V. A. A., and Kaptil'ny, A. G. G., 1992, “Velocity and Enthalpy Fields and Eddy Diffusivities in a Heated Supercritical Fluid Flow,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 5(4), pp. 465–478. [CrossRef]
Liepmann, H. W., and Roshko, A., 2001, Elements of Gas Dynamics, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.
Kazemifar, F., and Kyritsis, D. C., 2014, “Experimental Investigation of Near-Critical CO2 Tube-Flow and Joule–Thompson Throttling for Carbon Capture and Sequestration,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 53, pp. 161–170. [CrossRef]
Colebrook, C. F., 1939, “Turbulent Flow in Pipes, With Particular Reference to the Transition Region Between the Smooth and Rough Pipe Laws,” J. ICE, 11(4), pp. 133–156. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Pressure-temperature phase diagram of CO2 at the inlet and exit for pipe flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Pressure drop per unit length versus mass flow rate at 74 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Moody frication factor diagram

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Shadowgraphs of near-critical CO2 flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Pressure-temperature diagram for inlet conditions in shadowgraph experiment




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In