Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Modeling Pore Continuity and Durability of Cementitious Sealing Material

[+] Author and Article Information
E. A. B. Koenders

Construction Materials,
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Technical University of Darmstadt,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany;
Materials and Environment,
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628 CN, The Netherlands
e-mail: e.a.b.koenders@tudelft.nl

W. Hansen

Department of Civil and Environmental
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125

N. Ukrainczyk

Materials and Environment,
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628 CN, The Netherlands
Department for Inorganic Chemical Technology
and Nonmetals,
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology,
University of Zagreb,
Marulicev trg 19,
Zagreb 10000, Croatia

R. D. Toledo Filho

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,
Ilha do Fundão,
PO Box 68506,
Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, Brazil

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 9, 2013; final manuscript received September 24, 2014; published online October 13, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Andrew K. Wojtanowicz.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(4), 042904 (Oct 13, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1260; doi: 10.1115/1.4028692 History: Received September 09, 2013; Revised September 24, 2014

In this paper, results of a numerical study on pore continuity, permeability and durability of cementitious slurries for carbon sequestration projects are presented. The hydration model Hymostruc is used to simulate and visualize 3D virtual microstructures which are used to demonstrate the contribution of capillary pores to the continuity of the capillary pore system embedded in an evolving cementitious microstructure. Once capillary pores are blocked due to ongoing hydration, transport of CO2 species through the microstructure is avoided which may protect the slurry from leakage. Evaluating the pore continuity of the capillary pore system during hydration of the microstructure is therefore indispensable for a robust cementitious sealing material and is the main objective for slurry design. Simulations are conducted on slurries exposed to ambient temperatures of 20 °C, 40 °C, and 60 °C, and a durability outlook regarding the CO2 ingress is given as well. Aggregates and associated interfacial transition zones (ITZs) are introduced in the slurry system that may cause alternative porous path ways through the system. Pore continuity analysis shows the relevance of numerical simulations for assessing the capillary pore structure inside an evolving microstructure in relation to its sealing and durability performance.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Examples of a 0.45 wcr 3D virtual microstructure consisting of (a) PC (400 m2/kg) and (b) PC blended with 20% pozzolans (500 m2/kg), at the initial state

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Fig. 2

Schematic impression of expansion mechanism [24]

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Fig. 3

3D virtual microstructure of wcr 0.45 hydrated slurry for (a) PC (400 m2/kg) system (αc = 0.84) and (b) PC blended with 20% pozzolan (500 m2/kg) system (αc = 0.70, αp = 0.93)

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Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the pore volume distribution as a function of the pore diameter [24,27,28]

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Fig. 5

Digitized 2D front view of the 3D microstructure (see Fig. 3(a)) with (a) resolution 1 pixel/μm and (b) 3 pixels/μm

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Fig. 6

2D view of microstructure using different resolutions: (a) 1 pixel/μm; (b) 2 pixels/μm; and (c) 3 pixels/μm

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Fig. 7

Relative pore continuity calculated from 3D microstructure for 1, 2, and 3 pixels/μm (ppm) and for three different wcr after 28 days of hardening

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Fig. 8

3D pore structure of virtual microstructure (bulk paste): After 1000 h, αs = 0.69 (top); after 1 yr, αs = 0.83 (middle); and after 20 yr, αs = 0.94 (bottom)

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Fig. 9

Evolution of the degree of hydration for the four Bogue phases C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF

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Fig. 10

Evolution of relative pore continuity, pore volume, and solid phase as a function of time

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Fig. 11

Development of relative pore continuity, pore phase, and solid phase versus the capillary pore volume

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Fig. 12

Relative pore continuity versus capillary pore volume for wcr = 0.3 and 0.44, and for T = 20, 40, and 60 °C

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Fig. 13

Permeability versus hydration time: effect of curing conditions

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Fig. 14

Portlandite versus time

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Fig. 15

Rapid chloride migration tests with ingress profiles of PC concrete (a) and BFSC concrete ((b) and (c))

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Fig. 16

Close up of an aggregate particle with chlorides observed in the ITZ

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Fig. 17

Left: state of capillary water over the ribbon paste (wcr 0.4, Blaine 400 kg/m2) after half a year of hydration and right: pore connectivity over the ribbon paste (ITZ and bulk paste)




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