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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Thermodynamic Analysis of Thermal Responses in Horizontal Wellbores

[+] Author and Article Information
Luis F. Ayala H.

John and Willie Leone Family Department of
Energy and Mineral Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: ayala@psu.edu

Ting Dong

John and Willie Leone Family Department of
Energy and Mineral Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: txd202@psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 26, 2014; final manuscript received September 18, 2014; published online October 30, 2014. Assoc. Editor: G. Robello Samuel.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(3), 032903 (Oct 30, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1132; doi: 10.1115/1.4028697 History: Received April 26, 2014; Revised September 18, 2014

Wellbore models are required for integrated reservoir management studies as well as optimization of production operations. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a smart well technology deployed for permanent downhole monitoring. It measures temperature via fiber optic sensors installed along horizontal wellbores. Correct interpretation of DTS surveys has thus become of utmost importance and analytical models for analysis of temperature distribution behavior are critical. In this study, we first show how thermodynamic analysis can describe in detail the physical changes in terms of pressure and temperature behavior from the simplest cases of “leaky tank” to the horizontal wellbore itself. Subsequently, rigorous single-phase thermodynamic models for energy, entropy, and enthalpy changes in horizontal wellbores are derived starting from 1D conservative mass, momentum, and energy balance equations and a generalized thermal models, along with their steady-state temperature profile subsets, are presented. Steady-state applications are presented and discussed. The analysis presents the factors controlling horizontal wellbore steady-state temperature responses and demonstrates that wellbore thermal responses are neither isentropic nor isenthalpic and that the isentropic expansion-driven models and Joule–Thompson-coefficient (JTC) driven may be used interchangeably to analysis horizontal wellbore thermal responses.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Classic example of “leaky tank” system

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Fig. 2

A differential volume element of a wellbore

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Fig. 3

Phase envelope for gas composition

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Fig. 4

Phase envelope for oil composition

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Fig. 5

Flow rates for single-phase water, oil, and gas cases along wellbore length

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Fig. 6

Velocity profile for oil, water, and gas single-phase flow

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Fig. 7

Pressure profile for oil, water, and gas single-phase flow

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Fig. 8

Temperature profile for oil, water, and gas single-phase flow-horizontal wellbore

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Fig. 9

Overall contributions to temperature gradient for oil, water, and gas flow-horizontal wellbore-proposed model

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Fig. 10

Comparison of temperature profiles between proposed model and JTC model

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Fig. 11

Overall contributions to temperature gradient for oil, water, and gas-horizontal wellbore-JTC model

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Fig. 12

Comparison of proposed and Yoshioka's model—single-phase oil

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Fig. 13

Comparison of proposed and Yoshioka's model—single-phase water

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Fig. 14

Comparison of proposed and Yoshioka's model—single-phase gas

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Fig. 15

Solution procedure flow chart

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