Research Papers: Energy Storage/Systems

Effects of Temperature on Internal Resistances of Lithium-Ion Batteries

[+] Author and Article Information
Sazzad Hossain Ahmed

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Xiaosong Kang

Hybrid Power,
Eaton Corporation,
Galesburg, MI 49053

S. O. Bade Shrestha

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
e-mail: Bade.Shrestha@wmich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 16, 2014; final manuscript received September 5, 2014; published online November 17, 2014. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(3), 031901 (May 01, 2015) (5 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1219; doi: 10.1115/1.4028698 History: Received July 16, 2014; Revised September 05, 2014; Online November 17, 2014

The performance of a lithium-ion battery is significantly dependent on temperature conditions. At subzero temperatures, due to higher resistances, it shows lower capacity and power availability that may affect adversely applications of these batteries in vehicles particularly in cold climate environment. To investigate internal resistances, LiMnNiO and LiFePO4 batteries were tested at wide temperature ranges from 50 °C to −20 °C. Using impedance spectroscopy, major internal resistances such as cathode interfacial, anode interfacial and conductive, have been identified by using a simple equivalent circuit. Results showed that at subzero temperatures the anode interfacial resistance was almost twice than the cathode interfacial resistance. A simple model of the individual resistance increment as a function of temperature has also been presented at the end of the paper. In addition, dependency of cell impedance on state of charge (SOC) and temperature has also been analyzed from the test results.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Horiba, T., Maeshima, T., Matsumura, T., Koseki, M., Arai, J., and Muranaka, Y., 2005, “Applications of High Power Density Lithium Ion Batteries,” J. Power Sources, 146(1–2), pp. 107–110. [CrossRef]
Sternad, M., Cifrain, M., Watzenig, D., Brasseur, G., and Winter, M., 2009, “Condition Monitoring of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Elektrotech. Informationstech., 126(5), pp. 186–193. [CrossRef]
Nazri, G.-A., and Pistoia, G. (eds.), 2003, Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology, Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Garcia-Valle, R., and Peças Lopes, J. A. (Eds.), 2012, Electric Vehicle Integration Into Modern Power Networks, Springer, New York.
Srinivasan, V., 2008, “Batteries for Vehicular Applications,” AIP Conference Proceedings, Berkeley, CA, Mar. 1–2, pp. 283–296.
Hamut, H. S., Dincer, I., and Naterer, G. F., 2014, “Experimental and Theoretical Efficiency Investigation of Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Thermal Management Systems,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(1), p. 011202. [CrossRef]
Capata, R., and Sciubba, E., 2013, “The Low Emission Turbogas Hybrid Vehicle Concept—Preliminary Simulation and Vehicle Packaging,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135(3), p. 032203. [CrossRef]
West, R. E., and Kreith, F., 2006, “A Vision for a Secure Transportation System Without Hydrogen and Oil,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 128(3), pp. 236–243. [CrossRef]
Huang, C.-K., Sakamoto, J. S., Wolfenstine, J., and Surampudi, S., 2000, “The Limits of Low-Temperature Performance of Li-Ion Cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 147(8), pp. 2893–2896. [CrossRef]
Nagasubramanian, G., 2001, “Electrical Characteristics of 18650 Li-Ion Cells at Low Temperatures,” J. Appl. Electrochem., 31(1), pp. 99–104. [CrossRef]
Zhang, S. S., Xu, K., and Jow, T. R., 2003, “The Low Temperature Performance of Li-ion Batteries,” J. Power Sources, 115(1), pp. 137–140. [CrossRef]
Zhang, S. S., Xu, K., and Jow, T. R., 2006, “Charge and Discharge Characteristics of a Commercial LiCoO2-based 18650 Li-Ion Battery,” J. Power Sources, 160(2), pp. 1403–1409. [CrossRef]
Chatterjee, K., Majumdar, P., Schroeder, D., and Kilaparti, S. R., “Analysis of Li-Ion Battery Characteristics and Thermal Behavior,” ASME Paper No. HT2013-17815. [CrossRef]
Ji, Y., Zhang, Y., and Wang, C.-Y., 2013, “Li-Ion Cell Operation at Low Temperatures,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 160(4), pp. A636–A649. [CrossRef]
Arendas, A., Majumdar, P., Schroeder, D., and Kilaparti, S. R., 2014, “Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Characteristics of Li-Ion Battery for Use in Hybrid Locomotives,” J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 6(4), p. 041003. [CrossRef]
Cogger, N. D., and Evans, N. J., 2009, “An Introduction to Electrochemical Impedance Measurement,” Solatron Analytical, Technical Report No. 6.
Do, D. V., Forgez, C., El Kadri Benkara, K., and Friedrich, G., 2009, “Impedance Observer for a Li-Ion Battery Using Kalman Filter,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 58(8), pp. 3930–3937. [CrossRef]
Birkl, C. R., and Howey, D. A., 2013, “Model Identification and Parameter Estimation for LiFePO4 Batteries,” Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Conference 2013 (HEVC 2013), IET, London, UK, Nov. 6–7, pp. 1–6.
Tippmanna, S., Walpera, D., Balboaa, L., Spiera, B., and Bessler, W. G., 2014, “Low-temperature Charging of Lithium-ion Cells Part I: Electrochemical Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Degradation Behavior,” J. Power Sources, 252(2014), pp. 306–316.
Rodrigues, S., Munichandraiah, N., and Shukla, A. K., 1999, “AC Impedance and State-of-charge Analysis of a Sealed Lithium-ion Rechargeable Battery,” J. Solid State Electrochem., 3(7–8), pp. 397–405. [CrossRef]
Zhang, S. S., Xu, K., and Jow, T. R., 2004, “Electrochemical Impedance Study on the Low Temperature Performance of Li-ion Batteries,” Electrochim. Acta, 49(7), pp. 1057–1061. [CrossRef]
Seki, S., Kihira, N., Mita, Y., Kobayashi, T., Takei, K., Ikeya, T., Miyashiro, H., and Terada, N., 2011, “AC Impedance Study of High-Power Lithium-Ion Secondary Batteries—Effect of Battery Size,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 158(2), pp. A163–A166. [CrossRef]
Yoon, S., Hwang, H., Lee, C. W., Ko, H. S., and Han, K. H., 2011, “Power Capability Analysis in Lithium Ion Batteries Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 655(1), pp. 32–38. [CrossRef]
Marcicki, J., Rizzoni, G., Conlisk, A. T., and Canova, M., 2011, “A Reduced-Order Electrochemical Model of Lithium-Ion Cells for System Identification of Battery Aging,” ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Arlington, VA, Oct. 31–Nov. 2, pp. 709–716.
Purkayastha, R., and McMeeking, R. M., 2012, “A Linearized Model for Lithium Ion Batteries and Maps for Their Performance and Failure,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 79(3), p. 031021. [CrossRef]
Prasad, G. K., and Rahn, C. D., 2014, “Reduced Order Impedance Models of Lithium Ion Batteries,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 136(4), p. 041012. [CrossRef]
Barnes, J., Battaglia, V., Belt, J., Coates, C., Cost, H., Dunning, J., Duong, T., Habib, A., Haskins, H., Heinrich, B., Henriksen, G., Hunt, G., Lucas, G., Miller, T., Mikkor, M., Minck, B., Motloch, C., Murphy, T., Rogers, S., Sloane, C., Sutula, R. A., Tartamella, T., Tataria, H., and Swan, D., 2001, PNGV Battery Test Manual, DOE/ID-10597, Rev. 3.
Isaacson, M. J., Daman, M. E., and Hollandsworth, R. P., 1997, “Li-ion Batteries for Space Applications,” Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Vol.1, Honolulu, HI, Jul. 27–Aug. 1, pp. 31–34.
Li, J., Murphy, E., Winnick, J., and Kohl, P. A., 2001, “Studies on the Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium Ion Batteries During Rapid Charge–Discharge Cycling,” J. Power Sources, 102(1–2), pp. 294–301. [CrossRef]
Li, R., Wu, J., Wang, H., and Li, G., 2010, “Prediction of State of Charge of Lithium-ion Rechargeable Battery with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Theory,” 2010 the 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), Taichung, Taiwan, June 15–17, pp. 684–688.
Nagasubramanian, G., Ingersoll, D., Doughty, D., Radzykewycz, D., Hill, C., and Marsh, C., 1999, “Electrical and Electrochemical Performance Characteristics of Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Cells,” J. Power Sources, 80(1–2), pp. 116–118. [CrossRef]
Mita, Y., 2008, “Development of Quantification Method About Lithium Battery Degradation-Nondestructive Analysis of Cathode and Anode Electrodes Characteristics by Using Thermal/Electrical Responses,” CRIEPI Report No. Q07023.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of equivalent lithium-ion battery model used to analyze EIS data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Nyquist plots of the cells as a function of SOCs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Resistances in the cells as a function of temperature at 50% SOC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Resistances in the cells as a function of temperature at 20% and 70% SOCs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Resistances in the cells at different SOCs over temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cathode and anode interfacial resistance models as a function of temperatures




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In