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Research Papers: Air Emissions From Fossil Fuel Combustion

An Experimental Investigation of Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Hydrous Ethanol

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Fang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: fang0189@umn.edu

Junhua Fang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai, China 200240
e-mail: fjunhua@sjtu.edu.cn

David B. Kittelson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: kitte001@umn.edu

William F. Northrop

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: wnorthro@umn.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 2, 2014; final manuscript received October 1, 2014; published online October 23, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(3), 031101 (Oct 23, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1141; doi: 10.1115/1.4028771 History: Received May 02, 2014; Revised October 01, 2014

Dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion using port injection of a less reactive fuel and early-cycle direct injection (DI) of a more reactive fuel has been shown to yield both high thermal efficiency and low NOX and soot emissions over a wide engine operating range. Conventional and alternative fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, and E85 as the lower reactivity fuel in RCCI have been studied by many researchers; however, published experimental investigations of hydrous ethanol use in RCCI are scarce. Making greater use of hydrous ethanol in internal combustion engines has the potential to dramatically improve the economics and life cycle carbon dioxide emissions of using bioethanol. In this work, an experimental investigation was conducted using 150 proof hydrous ethanol as the low reactivity fuel and commercially available diesel as the high reactivity fuel in an RCCI combustion mode at various load conditions. A modified single-cylinder diesel engine was used for the experiments. Based on previous studies on RCCI combustion by other researchers, early-cycle split-injection strategy of diesel fuel was used to create an in-cylinder fuel reactivity distribution to maintain high thermal efficiency and low NOX and soot emissions. At each load condition, timing and mass fraction of the first diesel injection was held constant, while timing of the second diesel injection was swept over a range where stable combustion could be maintained. Since hydrous ethanol is highly resistant to auto-ignition and has large heat of vaporization, intake air heating was needed to obtain stable operations of the engine. The study shows that 150 proof hydrous ethanol can be used as the low reactivity fuel in RCCI through 8.6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and with ethanol energy fraction up to 75% while achieving simultaneously low levels of NOX and soot emissions. With increasing engine load, less intake heating is needed and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is required to maintain low NOX emissions.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

In-cylinder pressure and normalized injection pressure traces for SOIC1 = −60 deg ATDC, SOIC2 = −22 deg ATDC at 6.1 bar IMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

CA05, CA50, and gross indicated cycle efficiency versus second diesel injection timing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Gross apparent RoHR at varying second diesel injection timing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Gross indicated specific NOX, soot versus second diesel injection timing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Gross indicated specific CO, HC, aldehydes, ethanol emissions versus second diesel injection timing

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