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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

An Experimental Investigation of the Use of Combined Resistivity and Temperature Logs for Scale Monitoring In Carbonate Formations During CO2 Sequestration

[+] Author and Article Information
Abdulrauf Rasheed Adebayo

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
King Abdul-Aziz Center for Science and
Technology-Technology Innovation Center on
Carbon Capture and Sequestration,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: abdulrauf@kfupm.edu.sa

Hasan Y. Al-Yousef

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
King Abdul-Aziz Center for Science and
Technology-Technology Innovation Center on
Carbon Capture and Sequestration,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: hyousef@kfupm.edu.sa

Mohammed Mahmoud

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
King Abdul-Aziz Center for Science and
Technology-Technology Innovation Center on
Carbon Capture and Sequestration,
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mmahmoud@kfupm.edu.sa

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 9, 2014; final manuscript received September 27, 2014; published online October 23, 2014. Assoc. Editor: S. O. Bade Shrestha.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(3), 032202 (Oct 23, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1183; doi: 10.1115/1.4028772 History: Received June 09, 2014; Revised September 27, 2014

This study investigates the prospect of using permanent downhole resistivity and temperature sensors for scale monitoring during CO2 sequestration in saline carbonate aquifer. Current industry practice involves continuous geochemical analysis of produced formation water and petrographic analysis of cuttings at the surface. A major limitation of such methods is that formation scale dynamics is not captured in situ and in real time. Moreover, high cost and compositional change of produced fluid caused by evolution of dissolved gases are other setbacks. In this study, resistivity and temperature measurements were logged continuously for several months at 30 min interval during CO2 storage in brine saturated core samples. Carbonate samples were acquired from Indiana outcrops in the United States and cut into cylindrical cores. Samples were saturated with synthetic formation brine and CO2 was injected and stored at a temperature of 45 °C, pore pressure of 2000 psig, and an overburden pressure of 2500 psig. The pressure, temperature and resistivity of samples were collected and transmitted to a PC computer at an interval of 30 min for the period of storage. A base line log recorded after CO2 injection but prior to CO2/brine/rock interaction (CBRI) allowed us to track onset of dissolution and precipitation. Deflection away from the baseline either inward or outward during the period of storage marks two distinct reaction phenomenon-dissolution and precipitation. Our hypothesis was justified by results of geochemical analysis of prestorage brine and poststorage brine, and also by petrographic study of the cores. Several other tests were also run to ensure consistency. This study is new compared to previous works in the following ways: Many previous works focused on the applicability of electrical resistivity measurements to track CO2 migration by way of resistivity change as a function of CO2 saturation changes during CO2 sequestration. Many others also studied the effect of CO2 injection on the petrophysical and electrical properties of rocks. Previous works of these types used continuous flow of fluid in and out of the sample and such flow experiments lasted only few hours. The fate of formation resistivity under static condition and at longer storage period was not considered.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Temperature log taken from a production well at two different times. It shows interval contributing to flow and no flow intervals (Reprinted from Ref. [14]. Figure copyright Schlumberger. Used with permission.)

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Fig. 2

Temperature log taken after water injection in a horizontal well showing low and high injectivity zones (Reprinted from Ref. [14]. Figure copyright Schlumberger. Used with permission.)

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Fig. 3

Horizontal well completion showing multiple permanent sensors (Reprinted from Ref. [14]. Figure copyright Schlumberger. Used with permission.)

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Fig. 4

Resistivity logs (a) production from zone 1—no communication with zones 2 and 3 (b) production from zone 3—communication with zone 2 only (Reprinted from Ref. [14]. Figure copyright Schlumberger. Used with permission.)

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Fig. 5

Cylindrical carbonate samples

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Fig. 6

Experimental setup for CO2 storage and resistivity measurements

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Fig. 7

Core holder assembly

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Fig. 8

Sample wrapped with Teflon tape to delay CO2 effusion through sleeves

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Fig. 9

Resistivity and temperature log during CO2 storage in saline aquifer (IL-1)

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Fig. 10

Resistivity and temperature log during CO2 storage in saline aquifer (IL-2)

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Fig. 11

Resistivity and temperature log during nitrogen storage in saline sample IL-3

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Fig. 12

Resistivity and temperature log during CO2+ EDTA storage in saline sample IL-4

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Fig. 13

Resistivity and temperature log during brine storage in sample IL-3 at 2000 psig

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Fig. 14

Precipitates seen at the bottom of test tube containing post-CO2 storage brine

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Fig. 15

XRF analysis on precipitates showed 61% calcium

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