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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Gelation Performance and Microstructure Study of Chromium Gel and Phenolic Resin Gel in Bulk and Porous Media

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Offshore Oil Exploitation,
Beijing 10027, China;
CNOOC Research Institute,
Beijing 10027, China

Hong He

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao, Shandong 266555, China
e-mail: hehong1103@gmail.com

Yefei Wang, Xiaoli Xu

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao, Shandong 266555, China

Yuejun Zhu, Ruyin Li

State Key laboratory of Offshore Oil Exploitation,
Beijing 10027, China;
CNOOC Research Institute,
Beijing 10027, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 5, 2013; final manuscript received April 21, 2014; published online June 5, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Sarma V. Pisupati.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(4), 042910 (Jun 05, 2014) (5 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1311; doi: 10.1115/1.4027570 History: Received November 05, 2013; Revised April 21, 2014

Polymer gel has been widely used to control excessive water production in many mature oilfields; however, there still exist some problems concerning the differences between gelation behavior in bulk and porous media. In this paper, the gelation time and microstructures of chromium gel and phenolic resin gel in bulk and porous media were studied. Results showed that for chromium gel, the initial gelation time in porous media was about 2.5–3.5 times of that in bulk and final gelation time in porous media was about 6.0–7.0 times of that in bulk. While for phenolic resin gel, the initial gelation time in porous media was about 1.0–1.5 times of that in bulk, and final gelation time in porous media was about 1.5–2.0 times of that in bulk. The morphology of chromium gel and phenolic resin gel in bulk were dendritic shape structure and 3D network structure, respectively. However, the morphology of chromium gel and phenolic resin gel in porous media were both dense gel membranes at low magnification. While at higher magnification, compared with the branchlike cluster structure of chromium gel in porous media, the network of phenolic resin gel was more developed. The experimental results can provide the basis for determining well shut off time and reveal the differences of gel microstructures between the chromium gel and phenolic gel in bulk and porous media.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Effect of polymer concentration on bulk gelation properties of chromium gel

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Fig. 2

Effect of crosslinker concentration on bulk gelation properties of chromium gel

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Fig. 3

Effect of polymer concentration on bulk gelation properties of `phenolic resin gel

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Fig. 4

Effect of crosslinker concentration on bulk gelation properties of `phenolic resin gel

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Fig. 5

Effect of polymer concentration on in-situ gelation properties in porous media of chromium gel

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Fig. 6

Effect of Cr3+ concentration on in-situ gelation properties in porous media of chromium gel

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Fig. 7

Effect of polymer concentration on in-situ gelation properties in porous media of phenolic resin gel

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Fig. 8

Effect of crosslinker concentration on in-situ gelation properties in porous media of phenolic resin gel

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Fig. 9

Comparison of the IGT and FGT in bulk and porous media of chromium gel

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the IGT and FGT in bulk and porous media for phenolic resin gel

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the gel microstructures of chromium gel and phenolic resin gel in bulk:(a) 2000 mg/l HPAM+ 400 mg/l Cr3+ (×300), (b) 2000 mg/l HPAM+ 400 mg/l Cr3+ (×8.00 k), (c) 2000 mg/l HPAM+250 mg/l resorcinol+1000 mg/l HMTA+1250 mg/l acetic acid (×400), and (d) 2000 mg/l HPAM+250 mg/l resorcinol +1000 mg/l HMTA+1250 mg/l acetic acid (×3.50 k)

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Fig. 12

Comparation of the gel microstructures of chromium gel and phenolic resin gel in porous media: (a) 2000 mg/l HPAM+ 400 mg/l Cr3+ (×200), (b) 2000 mg/l HPAM+ 400 mg/l Cr3+ (×5.00 k), (c) 2000 mg/l HPAM+250 mg/l resorcinol+1000 mg/l HMTA+1250 mg/l acetic acid (×400), and (d) 2000 mg/l HPAM +250 mg/l resorcinol +1000 mg/l HMTA+1250 mg/l acetic acid (×5.00 k)

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