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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Experimental Study of Low Concentration Sand Transport in Multiphase Air–Water Horizontal Pipelines

[+] Author and Article Information
Kamyar Najmi

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
The University of Tulsa,
800 South Tucker Drive,
Tulsa, OK 74104
e-mail: kamyar-najmi@utulsa.edu

Alan L. Hill

Mem. ASME
Select Engineering, Inc.,
1717 South Boulder Avenue,
Suite 600,
Tulsa, OK 74119

Brenton S. McLaury

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
The University of Tulsa,
800 South Tucker Drive,
Tulsa, OK 74104
e-mail: brenton-mclaury@utulsa.edu

Siamack A. Shirazi

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
The University of Tulsa,
800 South Tucker Drive,
Tulsa, OK 74104
e-mail: siamack-shirazi@utulsa.edu

Selen Cremaschi

Chemical Engineering Department,
The University of Tulsa,
800 South Tucker Drive,
Tulsa, OK 74104
e-mail: selen-cremaschi@utulsa.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 12, 2014; final manuscript received December 21, 2014; published online February 26, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Reza H. Sheikhi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(3), 032908 (May 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1245; doi: 10.1115/1.4029602 History: Received August 12, 2014; Revised December 21, 2014; Online February 26, 2015

The ultimate goal of this work is to determine the minimum flow rates necessary for effective transport of sand in a pipeline carrying multiphase flow. In order to achieve this goal, an experimental study is performed in a horizontal pipeline using water and air as carrier fluids. In this study, successful transport of sand is defined as the minimum flow rates of water and air at which all sand grains continue to move along in the pipe. The obtained data cover a wide range of liquid and gas flow rates including stratified and intermittent flow regimes. The effect of physical parameters such as sand size, sand shape, and sand concentration is experimentally investigated in 0.05 and 0.1 m internal diameter pipes. The comparisons of the obtained data with previous studies show good agreement. It is concluded that the minimum flow rates required to continuously move the sand increases with increasing sand size in the range examined and particle shape does not significantly affect sand transport. Additionally, the data show the minimum required flow rates increase by increasing sand concentration for the low concentrations considered, and this effect should be taken into account in the modeling of multiphase sand transport.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental facility

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Fig. 2

SEM images of sand: (a) 20 μm sand, (b) 150 μm sand, (c) 300 μm sand, and (d) 150 μm glass beads

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Fig. 3

Sand size distribution: (a) 300 μm sand, (b) 150 μm sand, (c) 20 μm sand, and (d) 150 μm glass beads

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the obtained data in this study with previously reported data in the literature. Air–water, pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 5

Comparison of the obtained data in this study with previously reported data in the literature. Air–water, sand size: 150 μm and 200 μm; pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 6

Comparison of the obtained data in this study with previously reported data in the literature. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm, sand volume concentration: 0.01%, and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 7

Comparison of the flow regimes observed in this study with the Taitel–Dukler model. Pipe size: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the flow regimes observed in this study with the Taitel–Dukler model. Pipe size: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 9

Minimum liquid and gas flow rates (critical velocity) for successful sand transport in stratified and intermittent flow regimes. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm, sand volume concentration: 0.01%, and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 10

Minimum liquid and gas flow rates (critical velocity) for successful sand transport in stratified and intermittent flow regime. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm, sand volume concentration: 0.01%, and pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 11

Actual liquid velocity variation for successful sand transport in stratified and intermittent flow regime. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm, sand volume concentration: 0.01%, and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 12

Actual liquid velocity variation for successful sand transport in stratified and intermittent flow regime. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm, sand volume concentration: 0.01%, and pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 13

The effect of sand concentration on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 14

The effect of sand concentration on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm and pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 15

The effect of particle shape on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand size: 150 μm, sand volume concentration: 0.01%, and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 16

The effect of particle shape on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand size: 150 μm, sand volume concentration: 0.01%, and pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 17

The effect of sand size on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand volume concentration: 0.01% and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 18

The effect of sand size on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand volume concentration: 0.01% and pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 19

The effect of pipe size on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm and sand volume concentration: 0.01%.

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Fig. 20

The effect of pipe size on sand transport in multiphase flow. Air–water, sand size: 150 μm and sand volume concentration: 0.01%.

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Fig. 21

The effect of sand concentration on actual liquid velocity. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 22

The effect of sand concentration on actual liquid velocity. Air–water, sand size: 300 μm and pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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Fig. 23

Variation of actual liquid velocity for different sand sizes at critical velocity. Air–water, sand concentration: 0.01% and pipe diameter: 0.1 m.

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Fig. 24

Variation of actual liquid velocity for different sand sizes at critical velocity. Air–water, sand concentration: 0.01% and pipe diameter: 0.05 m.

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