Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Measurements of Laminar Flame Speeds of Alternative Gaseous Fuel Mixtures

[+] Author and Article Information
Ahmed S. Ibrahim

Thermofluids Group,
Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
Qatar University,
PO Box 2713,
Doha, Qatar
e-mail: a.mohamed@qu.edu.qa

Samer F. Ahmed

Thermofluids Group,
Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
Qatar University,
PO Box 2713,
Doha, Qatar
e-mail: sahmed@qu.edu.qa

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 3, 2014; final manuscript received January 27, 2015; published online February 26, 2015. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(3), 032209 (May 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1396; doi: 10.1115/1.4029738 History: Received December 03, 2014; Revised January 27, 2015; Online February 26, 2015

Global warming and the ever increasing emission levels of combustion engines have forced the engine manufacturers to look for alternative fuels for high engine performance and low emissions. Gaseous fuel mixtures such as biogas, syngas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are new alternative fuels that have great potential to be used with combustion engines. In the present work, laminar flame speeds (SL) of alternative fuel mixtures, mainly LPG (60% butane, 20% isobutane, and 20% propane) and methane have been studies using the tube method at ambient conditions. In addition, the effect of adding other fuels and gases such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen on SL has also been investigated. The results show that any change in the fuel mixture composition directly affects SL. Measurements of SL of CH4/LPG–air mixtures have found to be about 56 cm/s at ø = 1.1 with 60% LPG in the mixture, which is higher than SL of both pure fuels at the same ø. Moreover, the addition of H2 and O2 to the fuel mixtures increases SL notably, while the addition of CO2/N2 mixture to the fuel mixture, to simulate the EGR effect, decreases SL of CH4/LPG–air mixtures.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zheng, S., Zhang, X., Xu, J., and Jin, B., 2012, “Effects of Initial Pressure and Hydrogen Concentration on Laminar Combustion Characteristics of Diluted Natural Gas–Hydrogen–Air Mixture,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37(17), pp. 12852–12859. [CrossRef]
He, Y., Wang, Z., Yang, L., Whiddon, R., Li, Z., Zhou, J., and Cen, K., 2012, “Investigation of Laminar Flame Speeds of Typical Syngas Using Laser Based Bunsen Method and Kinetic Simulation,” Fuel, 95, pp. 206–213. [CrossRef]
Glassman, I., and Yetter, R., 2008, Combustion, 4th ed., Elsevier Inc., London, pp. 147–260.
Bar, A., 2012, “Development of an Experimental Facility for the Measurement of Burning Velocity of Gaseous Fuels in a Tube Using LDR,” Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
Bosschaart, K. J., de Goey, L. P. H., and Burgers, J. M., 2004, “The Laminar Burning Velocity of Flames Propagating in Mixtures of Hydrocarbons and Air Measured With Heat Flux Method,” Combust. Flame, 136(3), pp. 261–269. [CrossRef]
Rallis, C. J., 1980, “The Determination of Laminar Burning Velocity,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 6(4), pp. 303–329. [CrossRef]
Koroll, G. W., Kumar, R. K., and Bowles, E. M., 1993, “Burning Velocities of Hydrogen Air Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 94(3), pp. 330–340. [CrossRef]
Liu, D. D. S., and MacFarlane, R., 1983, “Laminar Burning Velocities of Hydrogen–Air and Hydrogen–Air–Steam Flames,” Combust. Flame, 49(1–3), pp. 59–71. [CrossRef]
Tripathi, A., Chandra, H., and Agrawal, M., 2010, “Effect of Mixture Constituents on the Laminar Burning Velocity of LPG–CO2–Air Mixtures,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 5(3), pp. 16–21.
Vagelopoulos, C. M., and Egolfopoulos, F. N., 1994, “Laminar Flame Speeds and Extinction Strain Rates of Mixtures of Carbon Monoxide With Hydrogen, Methane, and Air,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 25(1), pp. 1317–1323. [CrossRef]
McLean, I. C., Smith, D. B., and Taylor, S. C., 1994, “The Use of Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Burning Velocities to Examine the Rate of the CO+OH Reaction,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 25(1), pp. 749–757. [CrossRef]
Brown, M. J., McLean, I. C., Smith, D. B., and Taylor, S. C., 1996, “Markstein Lengths of CO/H2/Air Flames, Using Expanding Spherical Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 26(1), pp. 875–881. [CrossRef]
Hassan, M. I., Aung, K. T., and Faeth, G. M., 1997, “Properties of Laminar Premixed CO/H2/Air Flames at Various Pressures,” J. Propul. Power, 13(2), pp. 239–245. [CrossRef]
Natarajan, J., Kochar, Y., Lieuwen, T., and Seitzman, J., 2009, “Pressure and Preheat Dependence of Laminar Flame Speeds of H2/CO/CO2/O2/He Mixtures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(1), pp. 1261–1268. [CrossRef]
Singh, J. B., and Pant, G. C., 2007, “Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modelling to Study the Premixed Laminar Flame Propagation,” Def. Sci. J., 57(5), pp. 661–668. [CrossRef]
Metghalchi, M., and Keck, J. C., 1980, “Laminar Burning Velocity of Propane Air Mixtures at High Temperature and Pressure,” Combust. Flame, 38, pp. 143–154. [CrossRef]
Gu, X. J., Haq, M. Z., Lawes, M., and Woolley, R., 2000, “Laminar Burning Velocity and Markstein Lengths of Methane Air Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 121(1–2), pp. 41–58. [CrossRef]
Aung, K. T., Hassan, M. I., and Faeth, G. M., 1997, “Flame Stretch Interactions of Laminar Premixed Hydrogen/Air Flames at Normal Temperature and Pressure,” Combust. Flame, 109(1–2), pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
Rokni, E., Moghaddas, A., Askari, O., and Metghalchi, H., 2014, “Measurement of Laminar Burning Speeds and Investigation of Flame Stability of Acetylene (C2H2)/Air Mixtures”, ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(1), p. 012204. [CrossRef]
Moghaddas, A., Bennett, C., Eisazadeh-Far, K., and Metghalchi, H., 2012, “Measurement of Laminar Burning Speeds and Determination of Onset of Auto-Ignition of Jet-A/Air and Jet Propellant-8/Air Mixtures in a Constant Volume Spherical Chamber,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), p. 022205. [CrossRef]
Elia, M., Ulinski, M., and Metghalchi, M., 2001, “Laminar Burning Velocity of Methane–Air–Diluent Mixtures,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 123(1), pp. 190–196. [CrossRef]
Moghaddas, A., Eisazadeh-Far, K., and Metghalchi, H., 2012, “Laminar Burning Speed Measurement of Premixed n-Decane/Air Mixtures Using Spherically Expanding Flames at High Temperatures and Pressures,” Combust. Flame, 159(4), pp. 1437–1443. [CrossRef]
Eisazadeh-Far, K., Metghalchi, H., and Keck, J. C., 2011, “Thermodynamic Properties of Ionized Gases at High Temperatures,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 133(2), p. 022201. [CrossRef]
Eisazadeh-Far, K., Moghaddas, A., Metghalchi, H., and Keck, J. C., 2011, “The Effect of Diluent on Flame Structure and Laminar Burning Speeds of JP-8/Oxidizer/Diluent Premixed Flames,” Fuel, 90(4), pp. 1476–1486. [CrossRef]
Qiao, L., Kim, C. H., and Faeth, G. M., 2005, “Suppression Effects of Diluents on Laminar Premixed Hydrogen/Oxygen/Nitrogen Flames,” Combust. Flame, 143(1–2), pp. 79–96. [CrossRef]
Vu, T. M., Park, J., Kim, J. S., Kwon, O. B., Yun, J. H., and Keel, S. I., 2011, “Experimental Study on Cellular Instabilities in Hydrocarbon/Hydrogen/Carbon Monoxide–Air Premixed Flames,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36(11), pp. 6914–6924. [CrossRef]
Yan, B., Wu, Y., Liu, C., Yu, J. F., Li, B., Li, Z. S., Chen, G., Bai, X. S., Aldén, M., and Konnov, A. A., 2011, “Experimental and Modeling Study of Laminar Burning Velocity of Biomass Derived Gases/Air Mixtures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36(5), pp. 3769–3777. [CrossRef]
Chaichan, M. T., 2013, “Measurements of Laminar Burning Velocities and Markstein Length for LPG–Hydrogen–Air Mixtures,” Int. J. Eng. Res. Dev., 9(3), pp. 1–91.
Wei, L., Kuo, P. K., Thomas, R. L., Anthony, T. R., and Banholzer, W. F., 1993, “Thermal Conductivity of Isotopically Modified Single Crystal Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 70(24), pp. 3764–3767. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ahmed, S. F., 2014, “The Probabilistic Nature of Ignition in Turbulent Highly-Strained Lean Premixed Methane–Air Flames for Low-Emission Engines,” Fuel, 134, pp. 97–106. [CrossRef]
Liao, S. Y., Jiang, D. M., Gao, J., Huang, Z. H., and Cheng, Q., 2004, “Measurements of Markstein Numbers and Laminar Burning Velocities for Liquefied Petroleum Gas–Air Mixtures,” Fuel, 83(10), pp. 1281–1288. [CrossRef]
Hermanns, R. T. E., Konnov, A. A., Bastiaans, R. J. M., de Goey, L. P. H., Lucka, K., and Köhne, H., 2010, “Effects of Temperature and Composition on the Laminar Burning Velocity of CH4 + H2 + O2 + N2 Flames,” Fuel, 89(1), pp. 114–121. [CrossRef]
Bradley, D., Gaskel, P. H., and Gu, X. J., 1996, “Burning Velocities, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Quenching for Spherical Methane–Air Flames: A Computational Study,” Combust. Flame, 104(1–2), pp. 176–198. [CrossRef]
Huzayyin, A. S., Moneib, H. A., Shehatta, M. S., and Attia, A. M. A., 2008, “Laminar Burning Velocity and Explosion Index of LPG–Air and Propane–Air Mixtures,” Fuel, 87(1), pp. 39–57. [CrossRef]
Hermanns, R. T. E., 2007, Laminar Burning Velocities of Methane–Hydrogen–Air Mixtures, Universal Press, Veenendaal, The Netherlands.
Law, C. K., 2006, Combustion Physics, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Jomaas, G., Law, C. K., and Bechtold, J. K., 2007, “On Transition to Cellularity in Expanding Spherical Flames,” J. Fluid Mech., 583, pp. 1–26. [CrossRef]
Bose, P. K., and Banerjee, R., 2012, “An Experimental Investigation on the Role of Hydrogen in the Emission Reduction and Performance Trade-Off Studies in an Existing Diesel Engine Operating in Dual Fuel Mode Under Exhaust Gas Recirculation,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(1), p. 012601. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Typical thermocouple signals detected by the oscilloscope

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Snapshots of the flame front following ignition at Re = 1000

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

SL of CH4–air and LPG–air flames at different equivalence ratios in comparison with those of Refs. [27] and [31], respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

SL of CH4/LPG–air mixtures at different mixture strength values

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of H2 addition on SL of CH4/LPG–air mixtures at stoichiometric condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of O2 addition on SL of CH4/LPG–air mixtures at stoichiometric condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of CO2/N2 addition on SL of CH4/LPG–air mixtures at stoichiometric condition




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In