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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

On Icing and Icing Mitigation of Wind Turbine Blades in Cold Climate

[+] Author and Article Information
Bengt Sunden

Fellow ASME
Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-22100, Sweden
e-mail: bengt.sunden@energy.lth.se

Zan Wu

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-22100, Sweden
e-mail: zan.wu@energy.lth.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 25, 2014; final manuscript received April 3, 2015; published online April 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ryo Amano.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(5), 051203 (Sep 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1425; doi: 10.1115/1.4030352 History: Received December 25, 2014; Revised April 03, 2015; Online April 27, 2015

A review on icing physics, ice detection, anti-icing and de-icing techniques for wind turbines in cold climate has been performed. Typical physical properties of atmospheric icing and the corresponding meteorological parameters are presented. For computational modeling of ice accretion on turbine blades, the LEWINT code was adopted to simulate ice accretion on an aerofoil for a 2 MW wind turbine. Ice sensors and the basic requirements for ice detection on large blades are described. Besides, this paper presents the main passive and active ice mitigation techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. Scope of future work is suggested as wind turbine blades scale up.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 5

Separation between different ice types. The curves are shifted to the left with decreasing object size and increasing LWC [12].

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Fig. 4

Formation of (a) glaze ice and (b) rime ice [13]

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Fig. 3

An iced-up wind turbine blade from WindREN AB, Sweden [9]

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Fig. 2

Icing map for Europe [7]

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Fig. 1

Global cumulative installed wind power capacity from 1996 to 2013 [3]

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Fig. 14

Average ice adhesion strengths on four different silicon wafer surfaces [39]. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces are smooth while the superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces have structured textures.

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Fig. 6

Effect of droplet size variation on rate and shape of ice accretion, at T = −2.5 °C after t = 120 min [19]. The amount of ice accreted on the blade profile increases with MVD. MVD indicates medium volume diameter.

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Fig. 7

The evolution of ice thickness with temperature with different angles of attack: 0 deg, 5 deg, and 7 deg: (a) wind speed 10 m/s, MVD 15 μm, and LWC 2 g/m3, (b) wind speed 10 m/s, MVD 90 μm and LWC 2 g/m3, and (c) wind speed 10 m/s, MVD 90 μm and LWC 0.2 g/m3. MVD and LWC indicate MVD and LWC, respectively.

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Fig. 8

Dependence of ice thickness on (a) air temperature at wind speed 10 m/s, LWC 2 g/m3, MVD 90 μm and AOA 0 deg and time simulation 7200 s, and (b) wind speed at MVD 100 μm, LWC 1 g/m3, temperature −10 °C and AOA 0 deg and simulation time is 7200 s. AOA indicates the angle of attack.

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Fig. 9

Principle of the ice sensor proposed in Owusu et al. [26]

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Fig. 10

A electrothermal ice mitigation system: (a) schematic of composite aerofoil with embedded thermal elements and (b) icing behavior of the aerofoil in icing conditions [35]

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Fig. 11

Schematic of the ENERCON hot-air ice mitigation system: (a) fan heater integrated into the rotor blade to provide hot air and (b) representation of hot air flow [32]

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the energy metering data for wind turbines with and without hot air de-icing at Dragaliden, Sweden [32]. WT indicates wind turbine.

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Fig. 13

Thermodynamic work of ice adhesion (Wa) scaled by the surface tension (γw) of water as a function of water contact angle θ [37]

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Fig. 15

ARF dependence on water contact angle [40]. The blank circle ○: data from Susoff et al. [40]; the filled rectangular ▪: data from Beisswenger et al. [41].

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Fig. 16

Growth in size of wind turbines since 1980 and prospects [42]

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