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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Ammonia and Gasoline Fuel Blends for Spark Ignited Internal Combustion Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Shehan Omantha Haputhanthri

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409
e-mail: shehan.haputhanthri@ttu.edu

Timothy Taylor Maxwell

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409
e-mail: timothy.maxwell@ttu.edu

John Fleming

E2Amm LLC.,
Lubbock, TX 79410
e-mail: usjsf@aol.com

Chad Austin

Ford Motor Company,
Allen Park, MI 48101
e-mail: chad.r.austin@ttu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 8, 2014; final manuscript received April 17, 2015; published online May 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Avinash Kumar Agarwal.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(6), 062201 (Nov 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4030443 History: Received April 08, 2014; Revised April 17, 2015; Online May 11, 2015

Ammonia, when blended with hydrocarbon fuels, can be used as a composite fuel to power existing internal combustion (IC) engines. Feasibility of developing ammonia gasoline liquid fuel blends and the use of ethanol as an emulsifier to enhance the solubility of ammonia in gasoline were studied using a small thermostated vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) high-pressure cell. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted for developed fuel blends to measure the performance. Gasoline with 30% ethanol can retain 17.35% of ammonia in the liquid phase by volume basis. Engine dynamometer results show ammonia-rich fuels result in an increased torque and power output especially at higher engine speeds.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Small thermostated VLE cell

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of small VLE cell. (a) Thermostated chamber, (b) VLE cell, (c) borosilicate gage glass for liquid level measurements, (d) ammonia charging tank, (e) pressure transducer, (f) K-type thermocouple thermometer, (g) relief valve, (h) Bourdon tube pressure gage, (i) charging tank connection valves, (j) liquid feed-in valve, (k) magnetically coupled mixer, and (l) auxiliary valve for gas chromatography (not used).

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Fig. 3

Engine dynamometer with 2.4 l engine

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Fig. 4

Change molality of ammonia in gasoline with the pressure at 286.15 K

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Fig. 5

Percentage volume increase of the composite fuel with the pressure at 286.15 K

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Fig. 6

Power and torque curves of E0 and E0A3.74

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Fig. 7

Power and torque curves of E10 and E10A5.65

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Fig. 8

Power and torque curves of E20 and E20A12.90

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Fig. 9

Power and torque curves of E30 and E30A15.5

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Fig. 12

Change of solubility, percentage volume increase, and molality of ammonia in gasoline with the amount of ethanol at 286.15 K and 344.7 kpa (50 psi)

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Fig. 13

Improvement of AFR with ethanol

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Fig. 14

Improvement of AFR with ammonia

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Fig. 15

Improvement of AFR with ethanol and ammonia

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