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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Offshore Wind Foundation Design: Some Key Issues

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Dolores Esteban

Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
Universidad Europea,
C/Tajo, s/n,
Villaviciosa de Odón,
Madrid E28670, Spain;
e-mail: mariadolores.esteban@uem.es
Department of Hydraulic, Energy, and
Environmental,
School of Civil Engineering,
Technical University of Madrid,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
C/Profesor Aranguren, s/n,
Madrid E28040, Spain
e-mail: mariadolores.esteban@upm.es

José-Santos López-Gutiérrez

Assistant Professor
Department of Hydraulic, Energy,
and Environmental,
School of Civil Engineering,
Technical University of Madrid,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
C/Profesor Aranguren, s/n,
Madrid E28040, Spain
e-mail: josesantos.lopez@upm.es

Vicente Negro

Assistant Professor
Department of Hydraulic, Energy,
and Environmental,
School of Civil Engineering,
Technical University of Madrid,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
C/Profesor Aranguren, s/n,
Madrid E28040, Spain
e-mail: vicente.negro@upm.es

Clara Matutano

Department of Hydraulic, Energy,
and Environmental,
School of Civil Engineering,
Technical University of Madrid,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,
C/Profesor Aranguren, s/n,
Madrid E28040, Spain
e-mail: matumol@gmail.com

Francisca M. García-Flores

Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
Universidad Europea,
C/Tajo, s/n,
Villaviciosa de Odón,
Madrid E28670, Spain
e-mail: franciscamaria.garcia@uem.es

M. Ángel Millán

Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
Universidad Europea,
C/Tajo, s/n,
Villaviciosa de Odón,
Madrid E28670, Spain
e-mail: miguelangel.millan@uem.es

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 12, 2014; final manuscript received March 29, 2015; published online April 22, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ryo Amano.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(5), 051211 (Apr 22, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1404; doi: 10.1115/1.4030316 History: Received December 12, 2014

Despite the growth of the offshore wind industry, there are currently doubts relating to the design of wind facilities in the sea. This paper expounds current, already identified structural uncertainties: problems for soil characterization and transition piece (TP) design. This document also introduces new doubts or issues to be researched in the near future in this field (wave theory, scour process, wave load actions, scale difficulty, etc.), not as yet identified due to the scarce experience in the offshore wind industry. With this in mind, technical offshore wind standards related to foundation design have been reviewed.

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References

European Wind Energy Association, 2014, “The European Offshore Wind Industry Key Trends and Statistics 2013,” Technical Report of European Wind Energy Association. http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/statistics/European_offshore_statistics_2013.pdf
European Wind Energy Association Web Page, www.ewea.org
Esteban, M. D. , Diez, J. J. , López-Gutiérrez, J. S. , and Negro, V. , 2011, “Why Offshore Wind Energy?,” Renewable Energy J., 36(2), pp. 444–450. [CrossRef]
Negro, V. , López-Gutiérrez, J. S. , Esteban, M. D. , and Matutano, C. , 2014, “Uncertainties in the Design of Support Structures and Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines,” Renewable Energy J., 63(3), pp. 125–132. [CrossRef]
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Det Norske Veritas Web Page, www.dnv.com
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Matutano, C. , Negro, V. , López-Gutiérrez, J. S. , and Esteban, M. D. , 2013, “Scour Prediction and Scour Protection in Offshore Wind Farms,” Renewable Energy J., 57(9), pp. 358–365. [CrossRef]
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Carswell, W. , 2012, “Probabilistic Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbine Soil–Structure Interaction,” Master thesis, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Cumulative and annual offshore wind installation MW [1]

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Fig. 2

Installed capacity—cumulative share by country (MW) [1]

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Fig. 3

Offshore wind turbine structure components [5]

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Fig. 4

Infographic on the 2013 offshore statistic [2]

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Fig. 5

Typical design of the TP [10]

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Fig. 6

Conical TP solution [10]

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Fig. 7

Global and local scour development around a jacket structure [14]

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Fig. 8

Relative importance of inertia, drag, and diffraction wave forces [8]

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Fig. 9

Different wave force regimes [20]

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Fig. 10

Wave theories according to Lè Mèhautè in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [22]

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