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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Effect of Sand Content on the Filter Cake Properties and Removal During Drilling Maximum Reservoir Contact Wells in Sandstone Reservoir

[+] Author and Article Information
Badr S. Ba geri

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mails: g200804580@kfupm.edu.sa; bageri.b@gmail.com

Mohamed Mahmoud

Assistant Professor
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
Suez University,
Suez 43111, Egypt
e-mails: mmahmoud@kfupm.edu.sa; mohnasreldin80@gmail.com

Saleh. H. Al-Mutairi

Senior Petroleum Engineer
Technology Center,
Chevron Kuwait,
Mina Al-Zour 66051, Kuwait
e-mail: saleh.alshatri@gmail.com

Abdulazeez Abdulraheem

Associate Professor
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: aazeez@kfupm.edu.sa

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 29, 2015; final manuscript received November 2, 2015; published online December 17, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Mohamed A. Habib.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(3), 032901 (Dec 17, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1135; doi: 10.1115/1.4032121 History: Received March 29, 2015; Revised November 02, 2015

The drilling mud program contains many tests such as filtration rate and filter cake properties to select the proper drilling fluid additives that yield the standard ranges of the viscosity, filtration rate, etc. However, the physical and chemical changes in the mud composition during the mud circulating will cause changes to the filter cake properties. The changes in the filter cake properties should be considered in the mud design program to prevent the problems associated with the change in the drilling fluid properties. For long horizontal wellbores penetrating plastic formations, the two sources of solids in filter cake are drilling chemical additives and formation cuttings (sand particles in the case of sandstone reservoir). This study focuses on the effect of introducing sand particles from the drilled—formations on the filter cake properties. Real drilling fluid samples from the field were collected at different location during drilling a 3600 ft of the horizontal section of a sandstone formation. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) was used as weighting material in this filed. The drilling fluid samples were collected at two different points: the flow line coming from the well after shale shaker and the flow line going to the well to verify the effect of separation stages on filter cake properties. The primary drilling fluid properties of the collected samples were measured such as density and rheological parameters. High pressure high temperature (HPHT) filter press was used to perform the filtration and filter cake experiments at 300 psi differential pressure and room temperature (25 °C). The mineralogy of the external filter cake formed by fluid loss cell is determined using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction). Finally, solubility test was conducted to evaluate the effect of sand particles on filter cake removal (containing Calcium Carbonate as weighting material) using chelating agent: glutamic diacetic acid (GLDA) at pH 4. The results showed that for long horizontal sections, the effect of introducing sand particles to the composition of the filter cake can cause significant change to the properties of filter cake such as mineralogy, thickness, porosity, and permeability. For instant the thickness of filter cake increased about 40% of its original thickness when drilling sandstone formation in horizontal well due to fine sand particle settling. The filter cake porosity and permeability increment in the first 2000 ft part of the horizontal section was observed clearly due to the irregular shape of the drilling particles. However for the points after the first 2000 ft of horizontal lateral, the porosity and permeability almost remained constant. Increasing the sand content up to 20% degrade the dissolution rate of calcium carbonate in the GLDA (pH = 3.8) to 80% instead of 100%.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Changes of drilling fluid density with horizontal measured depth

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Fig. 2

Changes of drilling fluid apparent viscosity with horizontal measured depth

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Fig. 3

Changes of drilling fluid plastic viscosity with horizontal measured depth

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Fig. 4

Changes of drilling fluid yield point with horizontal measured depth

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Fig. 5

Changes of filter cake thickness with horizontal measured depth

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Fig. 6

Relationship between the filter cake thickness and the apparent viscosity of the drilling fluid

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Fig. 7

Relationship between the mud rheological properties and sand content

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Fig. 8

Changes of filter cake sand content in drilling fluid entering and exiting from horizontal well

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Fig. 9

Relationship between sand content of filter cake with horizontal measured depth

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Fig. 10

Filter cake porosity profile in the horizontal section

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Fig. 11

Filter cake permeability profile in the horizontal section

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Fig. 12

Relationship between the porosity of the filter cake and the sand content

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Fig. 13

Relationship between the permeability of the filter cake and the sand content

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Fig. 14

Effect of sand content on filter cake removal (CaCO3 weighting material)

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Fig. 15

GLDA after reacted with CaCO3 and sand solids

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